Swallowing Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Swallowing. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Swallowing or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Article
    • Diabetes facts
    • What is diabetes?
    • What is the impact of diabetes?
    • What causes diabetes?
    • What are the different types of diabetes?
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Other types of diabetes
    • What are diabetes symptoms?
    • How is diabetes diagnosed?
    • Why is blood sugar checked at home?
    • What are the acute complications of diabetes?
    • What are the chronic complications of diabetes?
    • What can be done to slow diabetes complications?
  • Lung Cancer Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung...learn more »
  • Laryngitis Laryngitis is an inflammation of the voice box (vocal cords). The most common cause of acute laryngitis is infection, which...learn more »
    In This Article
    Laryngitis Article
    • Laryngitis facts
    • What is laryngitis?
    • What causes laryngitis?
    • What are the symptoms of laryngitis?
    • Symptoms of laryngitis in adults
    • Symptoms of laryngitis in infants and children
    • Is laryngitis contagious?
    • How is laryngitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for laryngitis?
    • Are there any home remedies for laryngitis?
    • What are the complications of laryngitis?
  • Thyroid Cancer There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thyroid Cancer Article
    • Thyroid cancer facts*
    • What is the thyroid?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the different types of thyroid cancer?
    • Thyroid cancer symptoms*
    • How is thyroid cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined for thyroid cancer?
    • What is the treatment for thyroid cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Thyroid hormone treatment
    • Radioactive iodine therapy
    • External radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Second opinion
    • Follow-up care
    • Sources of support
    • Taking part in cancer research
  • Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Neck pain (cervical pain) may be caused by any number of disorders and diseases. Tenderness is another symptom of neck pain....learn more »
    In This Article
    Neck Pain (Cervical Pain) Article
    • What is neck pain? What are causes and risk factors for neck pain?
    • What are other symptoms that are associated with neck pain?
    • What are the structures of the neck?
    • How is neck pain diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for neck pain? What are home remedies for neck pain?
    • What is the prognosis for neck pain?
    • Is it possible to prevent neck pain?
  • Sjogren's Syndrome Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease involving the abnormal production of extra antibodies that attack the glands and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sjogren's Syndrome Article
    • Sjögren's syndrome facts
    • What is Sjögren's syndrome?
    • What causes Sjögren's syndrome?
    • What are risk factors for developing Sjögren's syndrome?
    • What are Sjögren's syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • How is Sjögren's syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Sjögren's syndrome? Will dietary changes improve Sjögren's syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • What are complications of Sjögren's syndrome?
    • Can Sjögren's syndrome be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for patients with Sjögren's syndrome?
    • Conclusion
  • Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophageal Cancer Article
    • Esophageal cancer facts*
    • What is the esophagus?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the types of esophageal cancer?
    • What are esophageal cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are esophageal cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is esophageal cancer diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for esophageal cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Should people get a second opinion after an esophageal cancer diagnosis?
    • What are the side effects of treatment for cancer of the esophagus?
    • What follow-up care is necessary during recovery?
    • Where can people get support for esophageal cancer?
    • How can people with esophageal cancer participate in clinical trials?
    • Where can people find more information about esophageal cancer?
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a condition in which the acidified liquid contents of the stomach backs up into the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Article
    • GERD facts
    • What is GERD (acid reflux)?
    • What causes GERD?
    • What are the symptoms of uncomplicated GERD?
    • What are the complications of GERD?
    • How is GERD diagnosed and evaluated?
    • Symptoms and procedures to diagnose GERD
    • GERD tests
    • How is GERD treated?
    • Lifestyle changes and GERD diet
    • GERD medications
    • GERD surgery
    • What is a reasonable approach to the management of GERD?
    • What are the unresolved issues in GERD?
  • Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive neurologic disease characterized by a fixed inexpressive face, a tremor at rest,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Parkinson's Disease Article
    • Parkinson's disease facts
    • What is Parkinson's disease?
    • What causes Parkinson's disease?
    • What genes are linked to Parkinson's disease?
    • Who is at risk for Parkinson's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
    • What other conditions resemble Parkinson's disease?
    • How is Parkinson's disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Parkinson's disease?
    • How can people learn to cope with Parkinson's disease?
    • Can Parkinson's disease be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for Parkinson's disease?
  • Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder in which brain and spinal cord nerve cells become demyelinated. This damage results...learn more »
    In This Article
    Multiple Sclerosis Article
    • What is multiple sclerosis?
    • What causes multiple sclerosis?
    • What are the risk factors for developing multiple sclerosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis?
    • What are the different types of multiple sclerosis?
    • How is multiple sclerosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment of multiple sclerosis?
    • What is the prognosis and life expectancy with multiple sclerosis?
    • Can multiple sclerosis be prevented?
    • What research is being done on multiple sclerosis?
  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammation of the esophagus. Eosinophilic esophagitis has many causes including acid reflux,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Eosinophilic Esophagitis Article
    • Eosinophilic esophagitis facts
    • What is and what causes eosinophilic esophagitis?
    • What are the symptoms of eosinophilic esophagitis?
    • How does eosinophilic esophagitis cause dysphagia?
    • What are the other causes of dysphagia or solid food?
    • How is eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosed?
    • How is eosinophilic esophagitis treated?
    • What about elimination diets for treating eosinophilic esophagitis?
    • What is the future of eosinophilic esophagitis?
  • Heartburn Heartburn is a burning sensation experienced from acid reflux (GERD). Symptoms of heartburn include chest pain, burning in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heartburn Article
    • Heartburn facts
    • Heartburn definition
    • What causes heartburn?
    • What are the symptoms of heartburn?
    • What foods and beverages aggravate heartburn?
    • How is heartburn diagnosed?
    • What are treatments and home remedies for heartburn?
    • Lifestyle changes
    • OTC and prescription medications
    • Surgical procedures
    • Heartburn during pregnancy
    • How can heartburn be prevented?
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that is spread from person to person via spit, semen, vaginal secretions, urine, blood, sexual...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Article
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection facts
    • What is cytomegalovirus (CMV)?
    • What causes cytomegalovirus infection?
    • What are the risk factors for cytomegalovirus infection?
    • How is cytomegalovirus transmitted?
    • What are cytomegalovirus symptoms and signs?
    • How do physicians diagnose cytomegalovirus infection?
    • What is the treatment for cytomegalovirus infection?
    • What is the prognosis of cytomegalovirus infection?
    • What are complications of cytomegalovirus infection?
    • Is it possible to prevent cytomegalovirus infection? Is there a CMV vaccine?
  • Barrett's Esophagus Barrett's esophagus occurs as a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), primarily in white males. GERD...learn more »
    In This Article
    Barrett's Esophagus Article
    • Barrett's esophagus facts
    • What is Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is there so much interest in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What causes Barrett's esophagus?
    • Who develops Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the specific abnormality in the inner lining (epithelium) of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What about the cancer that occurs in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in Barrett's?
    • What are the symptoms of Barrett's esophagus?
    • How is GERD with or without Barrett's esophagus treated?
    • Why is it important to screen patients with GERD to diagnose Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is it critical to be accurate in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What does endoscopic biopsy surveillance in Barrett's esophagus involve?
    • How is high grade dysplasia managed?
    • How is low grade dysplasia managed?
    • What are the experimental approaches for treatment of high grade dysplasia?
    • What experimental options are there for Barrett's esophagus WITHOUT dysplasia?
    • What does the future hold for Barrett's esophagus?
  • Achalasia Achalasia is a disease of the esophagus that mainly affects young adults. Abnormal function of nerves and muscles of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Achalasia Article
    • Achalasia facts
    • What is achalasia?
    • How does the normal esophagus function?
    • How is esophageal function abnormal in achalasia?
    • What causes achalasia?
    • What are the symptoms of achalasia?
    • What are the complications of achalasia?
    • How is achalasia diagnosed?
    • How is achalasia treated?
  • Salivary Gland Cancer Salivary gland cancer is cancer that affects the parotid glands, sublingual glands, or the submandibular glands. Risk factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Salivary Gland Cancer Article
    • Salivary gland cancer facts*
    • What is salivary gland cancer?
    • What increases the risk of salivary gland cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of salivary gland cancer?
    • What exams and tests are used to detect and diagnose salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for salivary gland cancer?
    • What tests are done to determine if salivary gland cancer has spread?
    • How does salivary gland cancer spread in the body?
    • What are the stages for salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the treatment for salivary gland cancer?
    • How does staging affect treatment options?
  • Scleroderma Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Scleroderma Article
    • Scleroderma facts
    • What is scleroderma?
    • What causes scleroderma?
    • What are risk factors for developing scleroderma?
    • How is scleroderma classified?
    • What are scleroderma symptoms and signs?
    • How is scleroderma diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for scleroderma?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with scleroderma?
    • Can scleroderma be prevented?
  • Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis, a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease. Varying degrees of weakness of the voluntary muscles of the body...learn more »
    In This Article
    Myasthenia Gravis Article
    • Myasthenia gravis facts*
    • What is myasthenia gravis?
    • What causes myasthenia gravis?
    • What is the role of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis?
    • What are the symptoms of myasthenia gravis?
    • Who gets myasthenia gravis?
    • How is myasthenia gravis diagnosed?
    • How is myasthenia gravis treated?
    • What are myasthenic crises?
    • What is the prognosis?
    • What research is being done?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Stroke A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Article
    • Stroke facts
    • What is a stroke?
    • What are the different types of stroke?
    • What are the warning signs of a stroke?
    • What are the symptoms of a stroke?
    • How is a stroke diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for stroke?
    • What is the prognosis for stroke?
    • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
    • What is stroke rehabilitation?
    • Can strokes be prevented?
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease) is a neurological disease that progresses rapidly. The disease attacks...learn more »
    In This Article
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Article
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis facts*
    • What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
    • Who gets ALS?
    • What are the symptoms of ALS?
    • How is ALS diagnosed?
    • What causes ALS?
    • How is ALS treated?
    • What research is being done on ALS?
    • How can I help research for ALS?
    • Where can I get more information about ALS?
  • Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that affects a number of different areas of the body at one time, and can be fatal....learn more »
    In This Article
    Anaphylaxis Article
    • Anaphylaxis facts
    • Introduction to anaphylaxis
    • What is the history of anaphylaxis?
    • How common is anaphylaxis?
    • What are common causes of anaphylaxis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis?
    • What happens after the symptoms begin?
    • Are there any disorders that appear similar to anaphylaxis?
    • How is anaphylaxis diagnosed?
    • How do we manage anaphylaxis?
    • What are emergency measures used in the treatment of anaphylaxis?
    • Can anaphylaxis be prevented?
  • Polymyositis Polymyositis is a disease of the muscle featuring inflammation of the muscle fibers. It results in weakness of the muscles which...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polymyositis Article
    • Polymyositis facts
    • What is polymyositis?
    • What causes polymyositis?
    • What are symptoms of polymyositis?
    • How does the doctor diagnose polymyositis?
    • How is polymyositis treated?
    • What is the prognosis for polymyositis?
    • What are risk factors for worse outcomes with polymyositis?
    • Can polymyositis be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information on polymyositis and dermatomyositis?
  • Botulism Botulism is an illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are three types of botulism:...learn more »
    In This Article
    Botulism Article
    • Botulism facts
    • What is botulism?
    • What causes botulism?
    • How many kinds of botulism are there?
    • How serious is botulism?
    • How does botulism neurotoxin affect the body?
    • What kind of organism is Clostridium botulinum?
    • How common is botulism?
    • What are botulism symptoms and signs?
    • How soon do symptoms appear?
    • How is botulism diagnosed?
    • How is botulism treated?
    • What are complications from botulism?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) of people with botulism?
    • Can botulism be prevented?
    • Is botulism neurotoxin really considered to be a potential biological weapon?
    • Why are botulism neurotoxins used as cosmetic treatments or treatments for some medical conditions?
  • Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's disease is a common cause of dementia. Symptoms and warning signs of Alzheimer's disease include memory loss,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alzheimer's Disease Article
    • Alzheimer's disease facts
    • What is dementia?
    • What is Alzheimer's disease?
    • Who develops Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
    • Ten warning signs of Alzheimer's disease
    • What are the causes Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease?
    • How is the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease made?
    • What treatment and management options are available for Alzheimer's disease?
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs)
    • Partial glutamate antagonists
    • Non-medication based treatments
    • Treatment of psychiatric symptoms
    • What is the prognosis of a person with Alzheimer's disease?
    • Caring for the caregiver and Alzheimer's disease resources
  • Huntington's Disease Huntington's disease is the result of degeneration of neurons in areas of the brain. Huntington's disease is an inherited...learn more »
    In This Article
    Huntington's Disease Article
    • Huntington's disease facts*
    • Introduction to Huntington's disease
    • What causes Huntington's disease?
    • How is Huntington's disease inherited?
    • What are the symptoms and major effects of Huntington's disease?
    • At what age does Huntington's disease appear?
    • How is Huntington's disease diagnosed?
    • What is presymptomatic testing?
    • How is the presymptomatic test conducted?
    • How does a person decide whether to be tested?
    • Is there a treatment for Huntington's disease?
    • What kind of care does an individual with Huntington's disease need?
    • What community resources are available for Huntington's disease?
    • What research is being done on Huntington's disease?
    • How can I help?
    • What is the role of voluntary organizations?
    • Where can I get more information about Huntington's disease?
  • Schatzki's Ring Schatzki (Schatzki's) ring, is a narrow ring of tissue located just above the junction of the esophagus and stomach. The cause of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Schatzki's Ring Article
    • What is a Schatzki ring?
    • What are symptoms of a Schatzki Ring?
    • How is a Schatzki Ring diagnosed?
    • What treatment is for Schatzki Ring?
  • Reflux Laryngitis Acid backing up into the larynx (voice box), it causes reflux laryngitis. Irritation of the lining of the esophagus, larynx, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Reflux Laryngitis Article
    • Reflux laryngitis facts
    • Why does reflux laryngitis occur?
    • What are the typical symptoms of reflux laryngitis?
    • How are reflux laryngitis evaluated?
    • What are home remedies, OTC medications, and lifestyle changes (diet) that can help reflux?
    • What types of medications are used to treat reflux?
    • What are the difficulties in diagnosing reflux laryngitis?
  • Chagas Disease Chagas disease is an infection caused by the T. cruzi parasite. Symptoms of Chagas disease include rash, swollen lymph nodes,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chagas Disease Article
    • Chagas disease (kissing bug disease) facts
    • What is Chagas disease?
    • What is the history of Chagas disease?
    • What causes Chagas disease?
    • What are Chagas disease symptoms and signs?
    • How is Chagas disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Chagas disease?
    • Can transmission of Chagas disease be prevented with a vaccine?
    • What are the risk factors for Chagas disease?
    • What is the prognosis for Chagas disease?
    • What are the complications of Chagas disease?
    • What research is being done for Chagas disease?
  • Snake Bites Pet vipers are a family of poisonous snakes, which includes rattlesnakes, copperheads, and water moccasins (cottonmouths)....learn more »
    In This Article
    Snake Bites Article
    • Introduction to snake bites
    • What are the symptoms of a poisonous snake bite?
    • What is appropriate first aid for poisonous snake bites?
    • How are poisonous snake bites treated?
  • Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms (MS Treatment Options) Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms vary from person to person, and can last for days to months without periods of remission....learn more »
    In This Article
    Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms (MS Treatment Options) Article
    • Multiple sclerosis symptoms introduction
    • What are the symptoms one may experience with multiple sclerosis?
    • Bladder and bowel symptoms of multiple sclerosis
    • Eye symptoms of multiple sclerosis
    • Muscle symptoms of multiple sclerosis
    • Numbness, tingling, twitching and pain symptoms of multiple sclerosis
    • Sexual problem symptoms of multiple sclerosis
    • Speech and swallowing symptoms of multiple sclerosis
    • Other brain and nerve symptoms of multiple sclerosis
    • What treatment options are available for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms?
    • What medications are available to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms?
    • How are other multiple sclerosis symptoms managed?
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in children is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Article
    • Irritable bowel syndrome in children facts*
    • What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What is the GI tract?
    • How common is IBS in children?
    • What are the symptoms of IBS in children?
    • What causes IBS in children?
    • How is IBS in children diagnosed?
    • How is IBS in children treated?
    • Eating, diet, and nutrition
    • Medications
    • Probiotics
    • Therapies for mental health problems
  • Alzheimer's Disease Patient Caregiver Guide Caring for a loved one or patient with Alzheimer's can become a difficult and overwhelming task at times. This guide helps...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alzheimer's Disease Patient Caregiver Guide Article
    • Tips for caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease
    • Dealing with the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
    • Communicating with a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Bathing a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Dressing a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Eating: getting a person with Alzheimer's disease to eat
    • Activities for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Exercise for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Incontinence in a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Sleep problems for caregivers and a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Hallucinations and delusions in a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Wandering: a problem for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Home safety for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Driving: decisions for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Visiting the doctor with a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Coping with holidays with a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Visiting a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • Choosing a nursing home for a person with Alzheimer's disease
    • For more information about Alzheimer's disease
  • Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms (and Stages) Alzheimer's disease symptoms often depend on the stage of the disease. Some of the early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms (and Stages) Article
    • What are the signs and symptoms of the stages of Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are the early signs and symptoms in the first stage with Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms in the second stage of Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms in the third stage of Alzheimer's disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms in the third stage of Alzheimer's disease?
    • Conclusion
  • Polio A polio infection causes symptoms and signs such as paralysis, limb deformities, and even death. There is no curative treatment...learn more »
  • The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Digestion is the complex process of turning food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestive process also involves...learn more »
    In This Article
    The Digestion Process (Organs and Functions) Article
    • Digestion definition
    • What is digestion?
    • The mouth
    • The pharynx and esophagus
    • The stomach and small intestine
    • The colon, rectum, and anus
    • Three accessory digestive organs (pancreas, liver, gallbladder)
  • 1p36 Deletion Syndrome 1p36 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes severe intellectual disability. Characteristics of 1p36 deletion sndrome...learn more »
    In This Article
    1p36 Deletion Syndrome Article
    • 1p36 deletion syndrome facts
    • What is and what causes 1p36 deletion syndrome?
    • What are the characteristics, signs, and symptoms of 1p36 deletion syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for 1p36 deletion syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis and life expectancy for 1p36 deletion syndrome?
    • Conclusion
  • Rabies Rabies is a viral disease that is transmitted via the bite of an infected animal. Symptoms include fever, headaches, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Rabies Article
    • Rabies facts
    • What is rabies?
    • What causes rabies?
    • What are risk factors for rabies?
    • What are rabies symptoms and signs?
    • How do physicians diagnose rabies?
    • What is the treatment for rabies?
    • What is the prognosis of rabies?
    • Is it possible to prevent rabies? Is there a rabies vaccine?
  • Diphtheria Diphtheria is a disease that causes symptoms and signs such as fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and swallowing problems. Erythromycin...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diphtheria Article
    • Diphtheria facts
    • What is diphtheria?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of diphtheria?
    • What is the history of diphtheria?
    • What causes diphtheria?
    • What are risk factors for diphtheria?
    • How do physicians diagnose diphtheria?
    • What is the treatment for diphtheria?
    • What are possible complications of diphtheria?
    • What is the prognosis of diphtheria?
    • Is it possible to prevent diphtheria? Is there a diphtheria vaccine?
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that increases the levels of phenylalanine and several other substances...learn more »
    In This Article
    Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency Article
    • What is tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency?
    • What are the symptoms of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency?
    • How common is tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency?
    • What genes are related to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency?
    • How do people inherit tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency?
    • What other names do people use for tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency?