Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
What is the operation (procedure) that is recommended?
Ask your surgeon for a
simplified explanation of the type of operation, technique
used, and reasons it should be performed. (Pictures and drawings can tell
patients and family a great
deal.) Why was this specific procedure chosen over possible alternatives?
Ask the surgeon about his/her experience with this
procedure, its outcome, and the hospital or setting in which the operation will
be performed. Is the nursing staff accustomed to caring for patients who have had this procedure?
What is the reason that this procedure is necessary at this time?
Is the procedure being done to relieve pain, diagnose a
deformity, for cosmetic reasons, or what exact purposes? Must the procedure be
What are the options if this procedure is not done?
What are the nonsurgical or medical treatments available to help the
condition? What will/might happen if the operation is not done? If the operation
is not done at this time, can it be done later? What are the consequences if the
procedure is postponed or delayed?
What is the anticipated outcome of the procedure?
What exactly are the expected or possible benefits of doing the
procedure? How likely is it that these benefits will result from the procedure?
What kind of anesthesia is required for the procedure?
Is a general anesthetic
necessary? Can the procedure be performed under local or regional anesthesia?
Are sedatives or other medications required prior to the procedure? What are the
risks of the type of anesthesia to be used?