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- What is sun protection?
- How is sunburn best prevented?
- What is sunscreen?
- What is meant by SPF?
- Are all sunscreens equally effective against UV radiation?
- How do sunscreens work, and which sunscreen ingredients protect against both types of UV radiation?
- How should skin sunscreens be applied?
- Do water or perspiration wash off sunscreen?
- Can sunscreens cause a skin reaction?
- Should everyone use sunscreen protection?
- Can the labels on sunscreen products be trusted in the U.S.?
- Do all tanning products contain sunscreens?
- What kind of sunglasses offer protection against UV rays?
- Is sunscreen protection necessary in the winter?
- Are a good sunscreen and sunglasses enough?
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Can the labels on sunscreen products be trusted in the U.S.?
In the past, manufacturers' claims on sunscreen packaging were largely unregulated. However, in recent years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued new labeling regulations for over-the-counter sunscreens. According to these FDA guidelines, sunscreen labels were prohibited from making claims that are considered unproven or absolute such as "waterproof" and "all-day protection." Earlier regulations for sunscreens concerned protection against sunburn, which is primarily caused by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from the sun, and did not address ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, which is a cause of skin cancers and early skin aging.
According to a 2011 ruling, all products that claim to provide broad-spectrum sun protection must comply with the following rules:
- If a sunscreen is labeled as "broad spectrum," it must pass a test that measures the product's ultraviolet A (UVA) protection relative to its ultraviolet B (UVB) protection. The label must indicate the degree of SPF or overall protection. Broad-spectrum SPF products with SPF values higher than 15 provide greater protection and may claim additional uses, as described below.
- Manufacturers of broad-spectrum sunscreens with SPF of 15 or higher may claim that these products reduce the risk of skin cancer and early skin aging if used as directed with other sun-protection measures. Non-broad-spectrum sunscreens (those that do not pass the broad spectrum test described above) and broad-spectrum sunscreens with an SPF value between 2 and 14 can only claim to help prevent sunburn.
- Manufacturers cannot label sunscreens as "waterproof" or "sweatproof" or identify their products as "sunblocks" because these claims are exaggerations. No sunscreen can completely block the sun's rays. According to the FDA ruling, "Sunscreens also cannot claim to provide sun protection for more than two hours without reapplication or to provide protection immediately after application (for example, instant protection) without submitting data to support these claims and obtaining FDA approval."
- Manufacturers of sunscreens that claim to be water resistant must indicate on the product label whether the sunscreen remains effective for 40 minutes ("water resistant") or 80 minutes (labeled "very water resistant") while swimming or sweating, based on standard testing. Products that are not water resistant must contain instructions on the label telling consumers to use a water-resistant sunscreen if swimming or sweating.
The Environmental Working Group, in a 2015 study of over 1,700 sun-protection products, released a report stating that 80% of these products offer inferior sun protection or contain "worrisome" ingredients. They also note that most SPFs max out at about SPF 50 despite the fact that many sunscreens on the market claim to have much higher SPF ratings.