Stroke Symptoms and Treatment Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Stroke Symptoms and Treatment. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Stroke Symptoms and Treatment or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Blood Clots Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...learn more »
  • Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Article
    • Diabetes facts
    • What is diabetes?
    • What is the impact of diabetes?
    • What causes diabetes?
    • What are the different types of diabetes?
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Other types of diabetes
    • What are diabetes symptoms?
    • How is diabetes diagnosed?
    • Why is blood sugar checked at home?
    • What are the acute complications of diabetes?
    • What are the chronic complications of diabetes?
    • What can be done to slow diabetes complications?
  • Edema Edema is the swelling of tissues as a result of excess water accumulations. Peripheral edema occurs in the feet and legs. There...learn more »
    In This Article
    Edema Article
    • Edema facts
    • What is edema?
    • What is pitting edema and how does it differ from non-pitting edema?
    • What causes pitting edema?
    • How does salt intake affect edema?
    • Why does a patient with heart disease retain fluid?
    • Why do patients with liver disease develop ascites and edema?
    • Why does edema occur in patients with kidney disease?
    • What is idiopathic edema?
    • How does venous insufficiency cause edema?
    • Which diuretics are used to treat edema?
    • Are diuretics used for other purposes?
  • Night Sweats Night sweats are severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. In order to distinguish night sweats...learn more »
    In This Article
    Night Sweats Article
    • Introduction to night sweats
    • What are the causes of night sweats in women, men, and children?
    • What are the symptoms of night sweats?
    • Menopause
    • Idiopathic hyperhidrosis
    • Infections
    • Cancer
    • Medications
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Hormone disorders
    • Neurologic conditions
    • Night sweats treatment
  • Vertigo Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or rocking, even when someone is at rest. Vertigo may be caused by a problem in the brain or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vertigo Article
    • What is vertigo?
    • What causes vertigo?
    • What are the risk factors for vertigo?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of vertigo?
    • How is vertigo diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for vertigo?
    • Are home remedies effective for treating vertigo?
    • What is the prognosis for vertigo?
    • Can vertigo be prevented?
  • Dizziness Dizziness is a symptom that is often applies to a variety of sensations including lightheadedness and vertigo. Causes of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dizziness Article
    • Dizziness facts
    • Introduction to dizziness (feeling dizzy)
    • What are some common causes of dizziness?
    • Low blood pressure
    • Postural or orthostatic hypotension
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Endocrine diseases
    • Hyperventilation
    • Heart conditions
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Dizziness and vertigo
    • What are the symptoms experienced when a person feels dizzy?
    • When should I call the doctor for dizziness?
    • How is dizziness diagnosed?
    • How is dizziness/vertigo diagnosed?
    • How is dizziness treated?
  • Headache Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Headache Article
    • Headache facts
    • What is a headache?
    • How are headaches classified?
    • What are primary headaches?
    • What are secondary headaches?
    • What are cranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches?
    • What causes tension headaches?
    • What are the symptoms of tension headaches?
    • How are tension headaches diagnosed?
    • How are tension headaches treated?
    • What causes cluster headaches?
    • What are the symptoms of cluster headaches?
    • How are cluster headaches diagnosed?
    • How are cluster headaches treated?
    • Can cluster headaches be prevented?
    • What diseases cause secondary headaches?
    • How are secondary headaches diagnosed?
    • What are the exams and tests for secondary headaches?
    • When should I seek medical care for a headache?
  • Bladder Infection (Cystitis) Bladder infection is an infection of the bladder, usually caused by bacteria or, rarely, by Candida. Certain people, including...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Infection (Cystitis) Article
    • What is a bladder infection?
    • What causes bladder infections?
    • What are some risk factors for bladder infection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in women?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in men?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a bladder infection in children?
    • How is a bladder infection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a bladder infection?
    • Are home remedies effective for a bladder infection?
    • How is a bladder infection during pregnancy treated?
    • What are potential complications of a bladder infection?
    • Can bladder infections be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for a bladder infection?
  • Hematoma A hematoma is a collection of blood that is outside a blood vessel. There are different areas where hematomas occur including the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hematoma Article
    • Hematoma facts
    • What is a hematoma?
    • What causes a hematoma?
    • What are the types of hematomas?
    • What are the symptoms of a hematoma?
    • When should I call the doctor about a hematoma?
    • How is a hematoma diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a hematoma?
    • What are the complications of a hematoma?
    • Can hematomas be prevented?
    • Related hematoma article:
      Hematoma - on eMedicineHealth
  • High Blood Pressure High blood pressure is defined as a pressure of 140/90 mmHg or higher in the arteries. Genetic factors, high salt intake, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Blood Pressure Article
    • What is high blood pressure?
    • What causes high blood pressure?
    • How is blood pressure measured?
    • What do blood pressure readings mean?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?
    • How is high blood pressure diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for high blood pressure?
    • What are the potential risks and complications of untreated high blood pressure?
    • What dietary strategies can help lower high blood pressure?
    • How does exercise help lower high blood pressure?
    • Is complementary and alternative medicine effective for treating high blood pressure?
  • Brain Tumor A brain tumor can be either benign (non cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), primary, or secondary. Causes and risk factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Tumor Article
    • Brain tumor facts*
    • What is the brain?
    • What are the tumor grades and types?
    • Tumor grade
    • Types of primary brain tumors
    • What are the risk factors for brain tumors?
    • What are the symptoms of a brain tumor?
    • How are brain tumors diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a brain tumor?
    • What type of surgery is available for brain tumors?
    • Radiation therapy for brain tumors
    • Chemotherapy for brain tumors
    • What about a second opinion for brain tumor treatment?
    • Nutrition during brain tumor treatment
    • What supportive care is available for patients and caregivers?
    • What about rehabilitation after brain tumor treatment?
    • What about follow-up care after brain tumor treatment?
    • Sources of support
    • Taking part in cancer research
  • Laryngitis Laryngitis is an inflammation of the voice box (vocal cords). The most common cause of acute laryngitis is infection, which...learn more »
    In This Article
    Laryngitis Article
    • Laryngitis facts
    • What is laryngitis?
    • What causes laryngitis?
    • What are the symptoms of laryngitis?
    • Symptoms of laryngitis in adults
    • Symptoms of laryngitis in infants and children
    • Is laryngitis contagious?
    • How is laryngitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for laryngitis?
    • Are there any home remedies for laryngitis?
    • What are the complications of laryngitis?
  • Fainting (Syncope) Fainting, also referred to as blacking out, syncope, or temporary loss of consciousness has many causes. Often a person will have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fainting (Syncope) Article
    • Fainting (syncope) Facts
    • Introduction to fainting (syncope)
    • What causes fainting (syncope)?
    • Heart rhythm changes
    • Heart structural conditions
    • Heart valve conditions
    • Sudden cardiac death
    • Postural hypotension
    • Vasovagal syncope
    • Anemia
    • Dehydration
    • Orthostatic hypotension
    • Vertebrobasilar artery disease
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Other medications and drugs
    • Pregnancy
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fainting (syncope)?
    • How is fainting (syncope) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fainting (syncope)?
    • Can fainting (syncope) be prevented?
  • Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count) Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) causes are either primary (aquired or genetic mutations) or secondary (diseases,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count) Article
    • Polycythemia facts
    • What is polycythemia?
    • What are normal ranges of hematocrit, red cell counts, and hemoglobin?
    • What causes polycythemia?
    • What are the causes of primary polycythemia?
    • What are the common causes of secondary polycythemia?
    • Can other sources of erythropoietin (EPO) cause polycythemia?
    • What is relative polycythemia?
    • What is stress polycythemia?
    • What are the risk factors for polycythemia?
    • What are the symptoms of polycythemia?
    • When should I see a doctor about polycythemia?
    • How is polycythemia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for polycythemia?
    • What are the complications of polycythemia?
    • Can polycythemia be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for polycythemia?
  • Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung) A pulmonary embolism occurs when a piece of a blood clot from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) breaks off and travels to an artery in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pulmonary Embolism (Blood Clot in the Lung) Article
    • Pulmonary embolism facts
    • What is a pulmonary embolism?
    • What are the causes and risk factors for pulmonary embolism?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism?
    • How is pulmonary embolism diagnosed?
    • Basic testing (CBC, electrolytes, BUN, creatinine blood test, chest X-ray, EKG)
    • Pulmonary angiogram
    • d-Dimer blood test
    • CT Scan
    • Ventilation-perfusion scans
    • Venous Doppler study
    • Echocardiography (EKG, ECG)
    • What is the treatment for pulmonary embolism?
    • Anticoagulation
    • Thrombolytic therapy
    • What is the prognosis for pulmonary embolism?
    • Can pulmonary embolism be prevented?
  • Fatty Liver Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple fatty liver (steatosis),...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatty Liver Article
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver facts
    • What are nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis?
    • Why is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease important?
    • What causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • What is the difference between nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis?
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and diabetes?
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of fatty liver?
    • How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed?
    • What are the other causes of fatty liver?
    • What are the complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • How is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease treated?
    • Weight loss and exercise
    • Diet
    • Medications and other treatment options
    • Bariatric surgery
    • Liver transplant
    • What is the relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease?
    • What diseases are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
    • Does nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occur in children?
  • Internal Bleeding Internal bleeding occurs when an artery or vein is damaged and blood to escapes the circulatory system and collects inside the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Internal Bleeding Article
    • Internal bleeding facts
    • What is internal bleeding?
    • What causes internal bleeding?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of internal bleeding?
    • How is internal bleeding diagnosed?
    • How is internal bleeding treated?
    • What are the complications of internal bleeding?
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in a vein located deep in the muscles of the legs, thighs, pelvis (lower torso), or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Article
    • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) facts
    • Introduction to deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    • What are the causes of deep vein thrombosis?
    • What are the symptoms of deep vein thrombosis?
    • When should I seek medical care for deep vein thrombosis?
    • How is deep vein thrombosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for deep vein thrombosis?
    • What are the complications of deep vein thrombosis?
    • Can deep vein thrombosis be prevented?
  • Dementia Dementia is a significant loss of intellectual abilities such as memory capacity, severe enough to interfere with social or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dementia Article
    • Dementia facts*
    • Introduction to dementia
    • What is dementia?
    • What are the different kinds of dementia?
    • Alzheimer's disease
    • Vascular dementia
    • Lewy body dementia
    • Frontotemporal dementia
    • HIV-associated dementia
    • Huntington's disease
    • Dementia pugilistica
    • Corticobasal degeneration
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    • Other rare hereditary dementias
    • Secondary dementias
    • Dementias in children
    • What other conditions can cause dementia?
    • What conditions are not dementia?
    • What causes dementia?
    • What are the risk factors for dementia?
    • How is dementia diagnosed?
    • Is there any treatment for dementia?
    • Can dementia be prevented?
    • What kind of care does a person with dementia need?
    • What research is being done?
    • How can I help research?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peripheral Vascular Disease Article
    • Peripheral vascular disease facts
    • What is peripheral vascular disease?
    • What is atherosclerosis?
    • How does atherosclerosis cause disease?
    • What are potential complications of peripheral artery disease?
    • What are the other causes of peripheral vascular diseases?
    • Who is at risk for peripheral artery disease?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of peripheral artery disease?
    • How is peripheral artery disease diagnosed?
    • What are the treatments for peripheral artery disease?
    • Lifestyle changes
    • Supervised exercise
    • Medications
    • Angioplasty
    • Surgery
  • Hiccups Hiccups are a sudden, involuntary contraction of the diaphragm muscle. In general hiccups are just a temporary condition. Some of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hiccups Article
    • Hiccup facts
    • What are hiccups?
    • What causes hiccups?
    • What are the symptoms of hiccups?
    • When should I contact my doctor for hiccups?
    • How are hiccups diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment or cure for hiccups?
    • Are there any complications of hiccups?
    • Can hiccups be prevented?
  • Hoarseness Hoarseness (abnormal deep, harsh, raspy voice) is caused by a variety of conditions in which the larynx (voice box and vocal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hoarseness Article
    • Hoarseness facts
    • What is hoarseness?
    • What causes hoarseness?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of hoarseness?
    • How are the causes of hoarseness diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hoarseness?
    • How is hoarseness prevented?
  • Seizure (Epilepsy) Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which the person has seizures. There are two kinds of seizures, focal and generalized. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Seizure (Epilepsy) Article
    • Epilepsy Facts*
    • Introduction
    • What is epilepsy?
    • What causes epilepsy?
    • What are the different kinds of seizures?
    • Focal seizures
    • Generalized seizures
    • What are the different kinds of epilepsy?
    • When are seizures not epilepsy?
    • First seizures
    • Febrile seizures
    • Nonepileptic events
    • Eclampsia
    • How is epilepsy diagnosed?
    • Can epilepsy be prevented?
    • How can epilepsy be treated?
    • How does epilepsy affect daily life?
    • Are there special risks associated with epilepsy?
    • What research is being done on epilepsy?
    • How can I help research on epilepsy?
    • What to do if you see someone having a seizure
    • Conclusion
    • Where can I get more information?
  • STDs in Men Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted during sexual contact. They may be caused by viruses, bacteria,...learn more »
    In This Article
    STDs in Men Article
    • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
    • Who is at risk for STDs?
    • What causes STDs?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of STDs?
    • List of STDs in men
    • Chlamydia
    • Gonorrhea
    • Trichomoniasis
    • HIV
    • Genital herpes
    • Genital warts (HPV)
    • Hepatitis
    • Syphilis
    • How are STDs diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for STDs?
    • What is the prognosis for STDs?
    • Can STDs be prevented?
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a ballooning or widening of the main artery (the aorta) as it courses down through the abdomen. Most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Article
    • Abdominal aortic aneurysm facts
    • What is an aneurysm?
    • What is an aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the thoracic and abdominal aorta?
    • Where do aortic aneurysms tend to develop?
    • What shape are most aortic aneurysms?
    • What is inside an aortic aneurysm?
    • Who is most likely to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What are risk factors of aortic aneurysms?
    • What is the most common cause of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are other causes of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How is an abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed clinically?
    • What tests help in the diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What are the complications with an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How are abdominal aortic aneurysms repaired?
    • What is done if an abdominal aortic aneurysm threatens to rupture?
    • What is the medical management (nonsurgical management) of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
  • Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain. The fluid is often under...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hydrocephalus Article
    • Hydrocephalus facts
    • What is hydrocephalus?
    • What are the different types of hydrocephalus?
    • Who gets this hydrocephalus?
    • What causes hydrocephalus?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of hydrocephalus?
    • How is hydrocephalus diagnosed?
    • What is the current treatment for hydrocephalus?
    • What are the possible complications of a shunt system?
    • What is the prognosis for hydrocephalus?
    • What research is being done on hydrocephalus?
    • Where can I get more information about hydrocephalus?
  • Alcoholism Alcoholism is a disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alcoholism Article
    • Alcohol use disorder facts
    • What is alcohol abuse?
    • What is alcoholism?
    • What differentiates alcohol abuse from alcoholism?
    • What are risk factors for alcoholism?
    • What causes alcoholism? Is alcoholism hereditary?
    • What are alcohol use disorder symptoms and signs in teenagers, women, men, and the elderly?
    • How do physicians diagnose alcohol use disorder?
    • What are the stages of alcohol use disorder?
    • What is the treatment for alcohol use disorder?
    • What medications treat alcohol use disorder?
    • How can you tell if someone has a drinking problem?
    • Can an alcoholic just cut back or stop drinking?
    • Is there a safe level of drinking?
    • Is it safe to drink alcohol while pregnant?
    • How can someone find more information or get help or support to treat alcohol use disorder?
    • What are the long-term physical and psychological effects of alcohol use disorder?
    • What is codependency, and what is the treatment for codependency?
    • Is it possible to prevent alcohol use disorder?
    • What is the prognosis of alcohol use disorder?
  • Aneurysm (Brain) Brain aneurysm (cerebral aneurysm) is caused by microscopic damage to artery walls, infections of the artery walls, tumors,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aneurysm (Brain) Article
    • Brain aneurysm facts
    • What is a brain aneurysm and what causes a brain aneurysm?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of brain aneurysm?
    • How is brain aneurysm diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for brain aneurysm?
    • What is the outcome of brain aneurysm?
    • What are future directions for the treatment of brain aneurysm?
  • Migraine Headache Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are accompanies to sensitivity to light, sounds, and smells. They are often...learn more »
    In This Article
    Migraine Headache Article
    • What is a migraine?
    • What are the risk factors for migraine?
    • What causes migraines?
    • What triggers migraines?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of migraines?
    • How are migraines diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for migraines?
    • What self-care treatment measures work for migraines?
    • How are migraines managed during pregnancy?
    • How are migraines managed in children?
    • What is the prognosis for migraines?
    • Can migraines be prevented?
  • Vasculitis Vasculitis is a general term for a group of uncommon diseases which feature inflammation of the blood vessels. Each form of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vasculitis Article
    • Vasculitis facts
    • What is vasculitis?
    • What causes vasculitis, and what are examples of diseases with vasculitis?
    • What are the symptoms of vasculitis?
    • How is vasculitis diagnosed?
    • How is vasculitis treated?
  • Nausea and Vomiting Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often precedes vomiting. Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nausea and Vomiting Article
    • Nausea and vomiting facts
    • Introduction to nausea and vomiting
    • What causes nausea or vomiting?
    • Acute gastritis and nausea and vomiting
    • Central causes of nausea and vomiting
    • Nausea and vomiting associated with illness
    • Nausea and vomiting from medications and medical treatments
    • Nausea and vomiting and bowel obstruction
    • Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (morning sickness)
    • Vomiting in infants
    • What are home remedies for nausea or vomiting?
    • When should I call the doctor regarding nausea and vomiting?
    • How is the source of nausea or vomiting diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for nausea and vomiting?
  • Encephalopathy Encephalopathy means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. Causes of encephalopathy are varied and numerous. The main symptom of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Encephalopathy Article
    • Encephalopathy facts
    • Encephalopathy definition and overview
    • What causes encephalopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of encephalopathy?
    • How is encephalopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for encephalopathy?
    • What are the complications of encephalopathy?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for encephalopathy?
    • Can encephalopathy be prevented?
    • For more information on types of encephalopathy
  • Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea is defined as a reduction or cessation of breathing during sleep. The three types of sleep apnea are central apnea,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sleep Apnea Article
    • Sleep apnea facts
    • What is sleep apnea?
    • What are the types of sleep apnea?
    • What is central sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • What is obstructive sleep apnea and what causes it?
    • How common is obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are obstructive sleep apnea symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of sleep apnea?
    • How is obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed and evaluated?
    • What are the nonsurgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • What are the surgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
    • Why is it important to treat obstructive sleep apnea?
  • Urinary Retention Urinary retention (inability to urinate) may be caused by nerve disease, spinal cord injury, prostate enlargement, infection,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Retention Article
    • Urinary retention facts*
    • What is the urinary tract?
    • What causes urinary retention?
    • What are the symptoms of urinary retention?
    • How is urinary retention diagnosed?
    • How is urinary retention treated?
    • What are the complications of urinary retention?
    • What are the complications of treatments for urinary retention?
    • Hope through research
    • Where can people find more information about urinary retention?
  • Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the heart. Symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Atrial Fibrillation Article
    • Atrial fibrillation facts
    • What is atrial fibrillation?
    • What causes atrial fibrillation?
    • What are the symptoms of atrial fibrillation?
    • What are the complications of atrial fibrillation?
    • What are the risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation?
    • How is atrial fibrillation diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for atrial fibrillation?
    • Reversing the risk factors that cause atrial fibrillation
    • Slowing the heart rate with medications
    • Anticoagulation to prevent blood clots and strokes
    • Converting atrial fibrillation to a normal rhythm
    • Procedures for treating and preventing atrial fibrillation
    • What is new in atrial fibrillation?
  • Depression Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one...learn more »
    In This Article
    Depression Article
    • Depression facts
    • What is a depressive disorder?
    • What are myths about depression?
    • What are the types of depression, and what are depression symptoms and signs?
    • Depression symptoms and signs in men
    • Depression symptoms and signs in women
    • Depression symptoms and signs in teenagers
    • Depression symptoms and signs in children
    • What are the causes and risk factors of depression?
    • Postpartum depression
    • How is depression diagnosed?
    • What treatments are available for depression?
    • What is the general approach to treating depression?
    • What about sexual dysfunction related to antidepressants?
    • What about discontinuing antidepressants?
    • What are complications of depression?
    • What is the prognosis for depression?
    • How can depression be prevented?
    • What about self-help and home remedies?
    • How can someone help a person who is depressed?
    • Where can one seek help for depression?
    • What is in the future for depression?
    • Where can people find more information about depression?
  • Brain Hemorrhage A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke caused when an artery bursts in the brain, causing localized bleeding in the surrounding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Hemorrhage Article
    • What is a brain hemorrhage?
    • What causes a brain hemorrhage?
    • What are the symptoms of a brain hemorrhage?
    • How is a brain hemorrhage diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a brain hemorrhage?
    • What is the prognosis after a brain hemorrhage? Is recovery possible?
    • Special situations
  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) Article
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) facts
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the causes of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the risk factors for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • How is transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What is the prognosis for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
  • Polymyalgia Rheumatica Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a disorder of the muscles and joints that causes pain and stiffness in the arms, neck, shoulders,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Polymyalgia Rheumatica Article
    • Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis facts
    • What is polymyalgia rheumatica?
    • What causes polymyalgia rheumatica?
    • What are symptoms and signs of polymyalgia rheumatica?
    • How is polymyalgia rheumatica diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for polymyalgia rheumatica?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with polymyalgia rheumatica?
    • Can polymyalgia be prevented?
    • What are complications of polymyalgia rheumatica?
    • What is giant cell arteritis?
    • What causes giant cell arteritis?
    • What are symptoms of giant cell arteritis?
    • How is giant cell arteritis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for giant cell arteritis?
    • What is the prognosis for patients with giant cell arteritis?
    • Can giant cell arteritis be prevented?
    • What are complications of giant cell arteritis?
  • Heart Attack Heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Article
    • Heart attack facts
    • What is a heart attack?
    • What causes a heart attack?
    • What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
    • What are the complications of a heart attack?
    • What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis and heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart attack?
    • What about heart attacks in women?
    • What are the risk factors for heart attack in women?
    • What are the symptoms of heart attack in women and how is heart attack diagnosed?
    • How is heart attack in women treated?
    • What about hormone therapy and heart attack in women?
    • What is new in heart attack?
  • Meningitis Encephalitis is a brain inflammation that causes sudden fever, vomiting, headache, light sensitivity, stiff neck and back,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Meningitis Article
    • Encephalitis and meningitis facts
    • What is encephalitis?
    • What causes encephalitis?
    • What are encephalitis symptoms and signs?
    • What is meningitis?
    • What causes meningitis?
    • What are meningitis symptoms and signs?
    • What is encephalomyelitis?
    • How are encephalitis and meningitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment of encephalitis and meningitis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with encephalitis or meningitis?
    • Is meningitis contagious?
    • Can meningitis be prevented?
  • Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Heart Rhythm Disorders) Heart rhythm disorders vary from minor palpitations, premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Heart Rhythm Disorders) Article
    • How does the heart work?
    • What is a heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia)?
    • What causes heart rhythm disorders?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of heart rhythm disorders?
    • What are the different types of heart rhythm disorders?
    • Premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
    • Sinus tachycardia
    • Sinus bradycardia
    • Abnormal heart rhythms
    • Tachycardia
    • Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib)
    • Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)
    • Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)
    • Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Atrial Flutter
    • Bradycardia
    • Heart blocks
    • When to seek medical care
    • How are heart rhythm disorders diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart rhythm disorders?
    • What is the prognosis for heart rhythm disorders?
    • Can heart rhythm disorders be prevented?
  • Dysphagia Dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing, swallowing problems. Dysphagia is due to problems in nerve or muscle control. It is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dysphagia Article
    • Dysphagia facts
    • What is dysphagia?
    • What causes dysphagia?
    • Physical obstruction of the pharynx or esophagus
    • Diseases of the brain
    • Diseases of the smooth muscle of the esophagus
    • Diseases of the skeletal muscle of the pharynx
    • Miscellaneous diseases
    • What are the symptoms of dysphagia?
    • Swallowing related symptoms
    • Non-swallowing related symptoms
    • What is the differential diagnosis for dysphagia?
    • How is dysphagia evaluated and the cause diagnosed?
    • How is dysphagia treated?
    • What is the prognosis for dysphagia?
    • What does the future offer for dysphagia?
  • Overactive Bladder Overactive bladder is a sudden involuntary contraction of the muscle wall of the bladder causing urinary urgency (an immediate...learn more »
    In This Article
    Overactive Bladder Article
    • Overactive bladder facts
    • What is an overactive bladder?
    • What are the causes of overactive bladder?
    • Are there any risk factors for overactive bladder?
    • What are symptoms of an overactive bladder?
    • How is overactive bladder diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for an overactive bladder?
    • What is the role of medications in treating overactive bladder?
    • What are treatments for the chronically incontinent?
    • What measures can be taken at home to prevent overactive bladder symptoms?
    • What are some of the complications of overactive bladder?
    • What is the prognosis for overactive bladder?
  • Optic Neuritis Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve, the structure that connects the eye to the brain. The precise cause of optic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Optic Neuritis Article
    • Optic neuritis facts
    • What is optic neuritis?
    • What causes optic neuritis?
    • What are symptoms of optic neuritis?
    • What are signs of optic neuritis?
    • How is optic neuritis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for optic neuritis?
    • What is the prognosis for optic neuritis?
    • Where can I find more information on optic neuritis?
  • Heart Valve Disease Heart valve disease occurs when the heart valves do not work the way they should. Symptoms of valve disease include shortness of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Valve Disease Article
    • What is valvular heart disease?
    • How do heart valves work?
    • What are the types of valve disease?
    • What causes valvular heart disease?
    • What are the symptoms of valve disease?
    • How are valve diseases diagnosed?
    • How is heart valve disease treated?
    • Living with valve disease
  • Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain) Brain lesions (lesions on the brain) are caused by trauma, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, cancers, other diseases, stroke,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Lesions (Lesions on the Brain) Article
    • Brain lesions facts
    • Brain anatomy
    • What are brain lesions?
    • What causes brain lesions?
    • What are the types of brain lesions?
    • What are the symptoms of brain lesions?
    • How are brain lesions diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for brain lesions?
    • Can brain lesions be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for brain lesions?
  • Double Vision Double vision (diplopia) is a symptom that my indicate Graves' disease, myasthenia gravis, stroke, multiple sclerosis,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Double Vision Article
    • What is double vision?
    • What causes double vision?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of double vision?
    • How is the cause of double vision diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for double vision?
    • Can double vision be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for double vision?
  • Aortic Stenosis Aortic valve stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart. The causes of aortic stenosis are wear and tear...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Stenosis Article
    • Aortic valve stenosis facts
    • What is aortic stenosis?
    • What causes aortic stenosis?
    • How does aortic stenosis affect the left ventricle pump?
    • What are the symptoms of aortic stenosis?
    • What might the doctor find in patients with aortic stenosis?
    • How is aortic stenosis diagnosed?
    • How is aortic stenosis treated?
  • Head Injury (Brain Injury) In the United States, head injuries are one of the most common causes of death and disability. Head injuries due to bleeding are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Head Injury (Brain Injury) Article
    • Head injury facts
    • Head injury introduction
    • What are the causes of head injury?
    • What are the symptoms of a head injury?
    • What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?
    • When should I contact a doctor about a head injury?
    • How is a head injury diagnosed?
    • How is a head injury treated?
    • What is the prognosis for a head injury?
    • How can a head injury be prevented?
    • What about a head injury in infants and young children?
  • Chagas Disease Chagas disease is an infection caused by the T. cruzi parasite. Symptoms of Chagas disease include rash, swollen lymph nodes,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chagas Disease Article
    • Chagas disease (kissing bug disease) facts
    • What is Chagas disease?
    • What is the history of Chagas disease?
    • What causes Chagas disease?
    • What are Chagas disease symptoms and signs?
    • How is Chagas disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Chagas disease?
    • Can transmission of Chagas disease be prevented with a vaccine?
    • What are the risk factors for Chagas disease?
    • What is the prognosis for Chagas disease?
    • What are the complications of Chagas disease?
    • What research is being done for Chagas disease?
  • Drug Abuse Drug addiction is a chronic disease that causes drug-seeking behavior and drug use despite negative consequences to the user and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Drug Abuse Article
    • Drug abuse and addiction facts
    • What is drug abuse?
    • What is drug addiction?
    • What types of drugs are commonly abused?
    • What are the physical and psychological effects of drug abuse and addiction?
    • What are causes and risk factors for drug abuse and addiction?
    • What are symptoms and signs of drug abuse and addiction?
    • What happens to your brain when you take drugs?
    • How is drug addiction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for drug addiction?
    • What are complications of drug addiction?
    • What is the prognosis of drug addiction?
    • Can drug abuse and addiction be prevented?
    • Where can people get help for drug abuse or addiction?
  • Myxedema Coma Myxedema coma is the loss of brain function due to severe longstanding low levels of thyroid hormone in the blood. Myxedema coma...learn more »
    In This Article
    Myxedema Coma Article
    • What is myxedema coma?
    • Who is affected by myxedema coma?
    • What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
    • What causes myxedema coma?
    • What are triggers of myxedema coma?
    • What are the symptoms of myxedema coma?
    • How is myxedema coma diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for myxedema coma?
    • How can myxedema coma be prevented?
  • Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy (CP) is an abnormality of motor function and postural tone acquired at an early age (even before birth). Cerebral...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cerebral Palsy Article
    • Cerebral palsy facts
    • What is cerebral palsy?
    • What are causes of cerebral palsy?
    • What are symptoms and signs of cerebral palsy?
    • What are the types of cerebral palsy?
    • What is spastic cerebral palsy?
    • What is dyskinetic cerebral palsy?
    • What is ataxic cerebral palsy?
    • What is dystonic cerebral palsy?
    • What is choreoathetoid cerebral palsy?
    • What is hypotonic cerebral palsy?
    • What is mixed cerebral palsy?
    • What other conditions are associated with cerebral palsy?
    • How is a child evaluated for cerebral palsy?
    • How is cerebral palsy treated?
    • What are specific treatment plans for cerebral palsy?
    • What is the long-term outlook for patients with cerebral palsy?
  • Taste Disorders The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception; that is, a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though you have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Taste Disorders Article
    • Taste disorders facts*
    • How common are taste disorders?
    • How does our sense of taste work?
    • What are the taste disorders?
    • What causes taste disorders?
    • How are taste disorders diagnosed?
    • Are taste disorders serious?
    • Can taste disorders be treated?
    • What research is being done?
  • Cholesterol High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cholesterol Article
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are the different types of cholesterol?
    • Why is high cholesterol dangerous?
    • Where does cholesterol come from?
    • What are normal cholesterol levels?
    • Which foods can help lower cholesterol?
    • What other lifestyle interventions help lower cholesterol?
    • What medications are available to treat high cholesterol?
  • Concussion Concussion is a short-lived loss of brain function that is due to head trauma. There are two types of concussion, simple and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Concussion Article
    • What is concussion and what causes concussion?
    • What are the types of concussion?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of concussion?
    • How is concussion diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for concussion?
    • How can concussion be prevented?
    • What is the future of concussion?
  • Bladder Spasms People who have bladder spasms, the sensation occurs suddenly and often severely. A spasm itself is the sudden, involuntary...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Spasms Article
    • What do bladder spasms feel like?
    • Who is most likely to develop bladder spasms?
    • What causes bladder spasms?
    • What are nervous system disorders that lead to bladder spasms?
    • Which types of surgery may lead to bladder spasms?
    • What are other causes of bladder spasms?
    • What is the treatment for bladder spasms?
    • What are complementary and alternative therapies for bladder spasms?
    • When should someone see a doctor for bladder spasms?
  • Palpitations Palpitations are uncomfortable sensations of the heart beating hard, rapidly, or irregularly. Some types of palpitations are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Palpitations Article
    • What are palpitations?
    • What are the different types of palpitations?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of palpitations?
    • How are palpitations diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for palpitations?
    • What is the prognosis for palpitations?
    • Can palpitations be prevented?
  • Facial Nerve Problems and Bell's Palsy (Bell Palsy) Facial nerve disorders affect the muscles of the face. There are many causes of facial nerve disorders including trauma, nervous...learn more »
    In This Article
    Facial Nerve Problems and Bell's Palsy (Bell Palsy) Article
    • Facial nerve problems and Bell's palsy facts
    • What is the facial nerve?
    • What are symptoms of a facial nerve problem?
    • What conditions affect the facial nerve?
    • How are the causes of facial nerve dysfunction diagnosed?
    • What is and what causes Bell's palsy?
    • What are the symptoms of Bell's palsy?
    • What is the mechanism of injury in Bell's palsy?
    • What are treatment options of facial nerve paralysis?
    • What is the treatment for eye problems from facial nerve disorder?
    • What surgical reconstruction options are available?
    • What is the prognosis for facial nerve problems?
    • Can facial nerve problems be prevented?
  • Obesity Obesity is the state of being well above one's normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obese if they are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Obesity Article
    • Obesity facts
    • What is obesity?
    • How common is obesity?
    • What are the health risks associated with obesity?
    • What causes obesity?
    • What are other factors associated with obesity?
    • How is body fat measured?
    • What about weight-for-height tables?
    • What is the body mass index (BMI)?
    • Does it matter where body fat is located?
    • What can be done about obesity?
    • What is the role of physical activity and exercise in obesity?
    • What is the role of diet in the treatment of obesity?
    • What is the role of medication in the treatment of obesity?
    • What about herbal fen/phen?
    • What about meal substitutes, artificial sweeteners, and OTC products?
    • What is the role of surgery in the treatment of obesity?
    • How can patients choose a safe and successful weight-loss program?
  • Aortic Dissection Aortic dissection is a small tear in the large blood vessel that leads from the heart and supplies blood to the body. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Dissection Article
    • Aortic dissection facts
    • Introduction to aortic dissection
    • What are the causes of aortic dissection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of aortic dissection?
    • How is aortic dissection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for aortic dissection?
    • What is the prognosis for aortic dissection?
    • Can aortic dissection be prevented?
  • High Blood Pressure Treatment High blood pressure (hypertension) means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Treatment for high blood pressure include...learn more »
    In This Article
    High Blood Pressure Treatment Article
    • What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?
    • Which lifestyle modifications are beneficial in treating high blood pressure?
    • Alcohol
    • Smoking
    • Coffee and caffeinated beverages
    • Salt
    • Other dietary considerations
    • Obesity
    • Exercise and stress reduction
    • How is high blood pressure treated?
    • Starting treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment with combinations of drugs for high blood pressure
    • Emergency treatment for high blood pressure
    • Treatment during pregnancy
    • Which medications are used to treat high blood pressure
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin receptor blockers
    • Beta blockers
    • Diuretics
    • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)
    • Alpha blockers
    • Clonidine
    • Minoxidil
    • Renin inhibitors
    • Aldosterone blockers
    • Combining agents
    • What about the patient's compliance with medication regimens?
    • Is alternative medicine used to treat high blood pressure?
    • What are the complications of high blood pressure?
    • Can high blood pressure be prevented?
    • What's new in high blood pressure?
  • Blindness Blindness is the state of being sightless. Causes of blindness include macular degeneration, stroke, cataract, glaucoma,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Blindness Article
    • Blindness facts
    • What is blindness?
    • What are the different types of blindness?
    • What causes blindness?
    • What are symptoms and signs of blindness?
    • How is blindness diagnosed?
    • What are treatments for blindness?
    • What is the prognosis for blindness?
    • When is someone considered legally blind?
    • Is blindness preventable?
  • Dystonia Dystonia disorders cause involuntary movements and prolonged muscle contraction, resulting in twisting body motions, tremor, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dystonia Article
    • What is dystonia?
    • What are the symptoms of dystonia?
    • What do researchers know about dystonia?
    • When do symptoms of dystonia occur?
    • How are the dystonias classified?
    • What treatments are available for dystonias?
    • What research is being done on dystonias?
    • Where can I get more information about dystonias?
  • Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Disease (Coronary Artery Disease) Article
    • What is heart disease?
    • What are the risk factors for heart disease?
    • What causes heart disease?
    • What are the symptoms of heart disease?
    • How is heart disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart disease?
    • What is the prognosis for heart disease?
    • Can heart disease be prevented?
  • Syphilis In Women Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease, is caused by a microscopic, wormlike bacterial organism called a spirochete. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Syphilis In Women Article
    • Syphilis facts
    • What are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?
    • What is syphilis?
    • What are the symptoms of syphilis?
    • How is syphilis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for syphilis?
    • Syphilis pictures
  • How the Heart Works The heart is a very important organ in the body. It is responsible for continuously pumping oxygen and nutrient-rich blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    How the Heart Works Article
    • Introduction to how the heart works
    • How does blood travel through the heart?
    • Where is your heart and what does it look like?
    • How does blood flow through the heart?
    • How does blood flow through your lungs?
    • What are the coronary arteries?
    • How does the heart beat?
  • Aphasia Aphasia is a condition that is the result of damage to portions of the brain. It can be caused by stroke, head injury, brain...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aphasia Article
    • Aphasia facts*
    • What is aphasia?
    • Who has aphasia?
    • What are the types of aphasia?
    • What is the treatment for aphasia?
    • What is the prognosis for aphasia?
    • What research is being done for aphasia?
  • Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing of the diameter of the renal arteries. When the renal arteries narrow, the result is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Renal Artery Stenosis Article
    • Renal artery stenosis facts
    • What are the renal arteries?
    • What is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the causes of renal artery stenosis?
    • How common is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the symptoms of renal artery stenosis?
    • What problems does renal artery stenosis cause?
    • Who should be screened for renal artery stenosis?
    • How is renal artery stenosis diagnosed?
    • What are the common imaging tests to evaluate renal artery stenosis?
    • What functional tests are used for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis?
    • What are medical treatments for renal artery stenosis?
    • What surgical procedures are available for renal artery stenosis?
    • Which patients can benefit from surgical procedures for renal artery stenosis?
  • Back Pain Back pain may be caused by sciatica, a herniated disc, spinal stenosis, fibromyalgia, injury and pregnancy. Possible symptoms...learn more »
    In This Article
    Back Pain Article
    • Low Back Pain Overview
    • Low Back Pain Causes
    • Low Back Pain Symptoms
    • When to Seek Medical Care
    • Low Back Pain Exams and Tests
    • Self-Care at Home
    • Medical Treatment
    • Low Back Pain Medications
    • Low Back Pain Surgery
    • Other Therapy
    • Follow-up
    • Low Back Pain Prevention
    • Low Back Pain Prognosis
  • Neuropathic Pain Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Diabetes, cancer, stroke, HIV, vitamin deficiencies,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Neuropathic Pain Article
    • What is neuropathic pain?
    • What are the risk factors for neuropathic pain?
    • What causes neuropathic pain?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of neuropathic pain?
    • How is neuropathic pain diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for neuropathic pain?
    • What is the prognosis for neuropathic pain?
    • Can neuropathic pain be prevented?
  • Urinary Incontinence in Women Millions of women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). UI occurs twice as often in women as in men. There are many types of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence in Women Article
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) in women facts*
    • What is urinary incontinence?
    • What are the types of urinary incontinence?
    • How is incontinence evaluated?
    • How is incontinence treated?
    • Points to remember
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Teen Drug Abuse Drugs commonly abused by teens include tobacco products, marijuana, cold medications, inhalants, depressants, stimulants,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Teen Drug Abuse Article
    • Teen drug abuse facts
    • What drugs are abused by teenagers?
    • What are some adolescent drug use statistics?
    • What are the dangerous effects of drug use in teens?
    • How can parents prevent drug use?
    • What are the symptoms and warning signs of drug abuse?
    • What is drug abuse?
    • What are the causes and risk factors of teen drug use?
    • What are the symptoms of drug abuse in teens?
    • What is the treatment of drug intoxication?
    • What are treatments for drug addiction?
    • Where can a person get help for teen drug abuse?
  • Urinary Incontinence There are many types of urinary incontinence (UI), which is the accidental leakage of urine. These types include stress...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence Article
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) in men facts*
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) introduction
    • What causes urinary incontinence (UI) in men?
    • How is urinary incontinence (UI) diagnosed?
    • How is urinary incontinence (UI) treated?
    • How do you do Kegel exercises?
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Heart Attacks in Women Heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. Women are more likely to die from a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attacks in Women Article
    • One woman's heart attack story
    • What is heart disease?
    • Do women need to worry about heart disease?
    • Do women of color need to worry about heart disease?
    • What can I do to prevent heart disease?
    • What does high blood pressure have to do with heart disease?
    • How can I lower my blood pressure?
    • What does high cholesterol have to do with heart disease?
    • What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean?
    • How can I lower my cholesterol?
    • How do I know if I have heart disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a heart attack?
    • One of my family members had a heart attack. Does that mean I'll have one too?
    • Sometimes my heart beats really fast and other times it feels like my heart skips a beat. Am I having a heart attack?
    • Should I take a daily aspirin to prevent heart attack?
    • Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does using the birth control patch increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does menopausal hormone therapy (HT, HRT, ET) increase a woman's risk for heart disease?
    • For more information on heart disease in women
  • Senior Sex Enjoying a satisfying sex life as we age is important to both physical and mental health. As we age, diseases and conditions may...learn more »
    In This Article
    Senior Sex Article
    • Senior sex facts*
    • Introduction to senior sex
    • What are the normal physical changes with age?
    • What causes sexual problems as we age?
    • What else may cause sexuality problems?
    • Am I too old to worry about safe sex?
    • Can emotions play a part?
    • What can I do to have an active sex life as I age?
  • Stuttering Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by speech disruptions such as prolongations of speech sounds, syllables or words,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stuttering Article
    • What is stuttering?
    • Who stutters?
    • How is speech normally produced?
    • What causes stuttering?
    • How is stuttering diagnosed?
    • How is stuttering treated?
    • What research is being done about stuttering?
    • Where can I get additional information?
  • Nerve Disease and Bladder Control A nerve problem might affect your bladder control if the nerves that are supposed to carry messages between the brain and the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nerve Disease and Bladder Control Article
    • What bladder control problems does nerve damage cause?
    • What causes nerve damage?
    • How will the doctor test for nerve damage and bladder control problems?
    • What are the treatments for overactive bladder?
    • How do you do Kegel exercises?
    • What are the treatments for lack of coordination between the bladder and urethra?
    • What are the treatments for urine retention?
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Steroid Abuse Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances that are related to testosterone and promote skeletal muscle growth and the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Steroid Abuse Article
    • Anabolic steroid abuse facts
    • What are anabolic steroids?
    • Why do people abuse anabolic steroids?
    • How do people abuse anabolic steroids?
    • Are anabolic steroids addictive?
    • What are the psychological and physical side effects of anabolic steroid abuse?
    • How are anabolic steroid abuse and addiction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for anabolic steroid abuse and addiction?
    • Can anabolic steroid abuse and addiction be prevented?
    • Where can I get more information on anabolic steroid abuse?
  • Shingles and Pregnancy Becoming infected with chickenpox during pregnancy could cause birth defects in your unborn child. Likewise, shingles could also...learn more »
    In This Article
    Shingles and Pregnancy Article
    • Shingles in pregnancy facts
    • What is shingles?
    • What do shingles look like?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of shingles?
    • How is shingles diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for shingles in pregnancy?
    • Antiviral medication to treat shingles
    • Pain medication to treat shingles
    • Antihistamine medication to treat shingles
    • What are the complications of shingles in pregnancy?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for shingles in pregnancy?
    • Can shingles in pregnancy be prevented?
  • Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco can have negative health effects such as cancers, poor oral health (gum disease and tooth decay), infertility,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smokeless Tobacco Article
    • Smokeless tobacco facts
    • What is smokeless tobacco?
    • What are the health risks of smokeless tobacco?
    • Cancer risk
    • Other health risks
    • Is smokeless tobacco safer than cigarette smoking?
    • What is being done to reduce the use of smokeless tobacco?
    • What treatments are available to help people quit using smokeless tobacco?
  • Prevention Enjoying a healthy diet helps to prevent diseases. A good diet also helps to control celiac disease, diabetes, and high blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    Prevention Article
    • Maintaining health
    • Preventing and controlling diseases
    • Vitamins and minerals to maintain health
    • Vitamin supplements to prevent diseases
    • Diets to control and/or treat diseases
  • Cocaine and Crack Abuse Cocaine is an addictive stimulant that is smoked, snorted, and injected. Crack is cocaine that comes in a rock crystal that is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cocaine and Crack Abuse Article
    • Cocaine and crack abuse facts
    • What is cocaine? What is crack?
    • How is cocaine abused?
    • What are cocaine's effects on the body and the mind?
    • What causes and prevents cocaine abuse and addiction?
    • What are symptoms and signs of cocaine abuse and addiction?
    • How is cocaine addiction diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cocaine and crack addiction?
    • What are symptoms and signs of cocaine withdrawal?
    • What are the long-term effects and the prognosis for cocaine and crack addiction?
    • Where can people find more information about cocaine and crack abuse?
  • Bowel Incontinence Bowel or fecal incontinence refers to the loss of voluntary control of stool, or bowel movements. The condition can include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bowel Incontinence Article
    • Bowel incontinence (fecal incontinence) definition
    • What causes bowel incontinence?
    • What are the symptoms of bowel incontinence?
    • How is bowel incontinence diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bowel incontinence?
    • What about bowel incontinence in children?
    • Can bowel incontinence be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for bowel incontinence?
  • Childhood Obesity Fast food consumption and lack of exercise are just a couple of causes of childhood obesity. Health effects of childhood obesity...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood Obesity Article
    • Childhood obesity facts
    • What is childhood obesity? How is childhood obesity diagnosed?
    • How prevalent is childhood obesity?
    • What causes childhood obesity?
    • What are childhood obesity symptoms and signs?
    • What are risk factors for childhood obesity?
    • What are the risks, complications, and long-term health effects of childhood obesity?
    • What is the treatment for childhood obesity?
    • Can childhood obesity be prevented?
    • What research is being done on childhood obesity?
    • Where can people find more information on childhood obesity?
  • MELAS Syndrome MELAS syndrome, a rare form of dementia, stands for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes....learn more »
    In This Article
    MELAS Syndrome Article
    • What is MELAS?
    • What causes MELAS?
    • What are the symptoms of MELAS?
    • How is MELAS diagnosed?
    • When do people with MELAS develop symptoms?
    • How is MELAS treated?
    • are there other mitochondrial diseases?
  • Arteriovenous Malformation Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Arteriovenous Malformation Article
    • What are arteriovenous malformations?
    • What are the symptoms of arteriovenous malformations?
    • How do arteriovenous malformations damage the brain and spinal cord?
    • Where do neurological arteriovenous malformations tend to form?
    • What are the health consequences of arteriovenous malformations?
    • What other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system?
    • What causes vascular lesions?
    • How are arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions detected?
    • How can arteriovenous malformations and other vascular lesions be treated?
    • What research is being done?
  • Cardiomyopathy (Dilated) Dilated Cardiomyopathy is a condition where the heart's ability to pump blood is decreased because the heart's main pumping...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cardiomyopathy (Dilated) Article
    • What Is dilated cardiomyopathy?
    • What are the symptoms of Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • What causes Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • How is Dilated Cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
    • What surgeries are used to treat Dilated Cardiomyopathy?
  • Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Brain damage causes destruction or deterioration of brain cells. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acquired brain injury (ABI) are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Damage: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment Article
    • Brain damage introduction
    • What are the types of brain damage and how severe are they?
    • What causes brain damage?
    • What are the symptoms of brain damage?
    • How are brain damage and brain injuries treated?
    • Can I prevent brain injuries?
  • Coma Coma is the inability to waken or react to the surrounding environment. The Glasgow Coma Scale is frequently used to measure the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Coma Article
    • What is a "coma"?
    • What is the Glasgow Coma Scale?
    • What are the causes of a coma?
    • Trauma
    • Bleeding (Hemorrhage)
    • Epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid hemorrhages
    • Tumors
    • Swelling
    • Infection
    • Lack of oxygen
    • Hypoglycemic coma
    • Poisons
    • How is coma assessed?
    • What tests are there for coma?
    • What is the outcome and prognosis for a patient in a coma?
    • Induced Coma
  • Fabry Disease Fabry disease (Fabry's disease, alpha-galactosidase-A) is a genetic disorder with symptoms such as burning sensations in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fabry Disease Article
    • What is, and what causes Fabry disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Fabry disease?
    • Is there any treatment for Fabry disease?
    • What is the prognosis for Fabry disease?
    • What research is being done on Fabry disease?
    • For more information
  • Cysticercosis (Pork Tapeworm Infection) Cysticercosis is an infection caused by Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Symptoms include seizures, lethargy, nausea and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cysticercosis (Pork Tapeworm Infection) Article
    • Cysticercosis (pork tapeworm infection) facts
    • What is cysticercosis?
    • What causes cysticercosis?
    • How is cysticercosis transmitted?
    • What are cysticercosis symptoms and signs?
    • How is cysticercosis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cysticercosis?
    • What are the complications of cysticercosis?
    • How is cysticercosis prevented?
  • Heart Attack Treatment A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Treatment Article
    • What is a heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack treated?
    • Antiplatelet agents
    • Aspirin
    • Thienopyridines
    • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
    • Anticoagulants
    • Clot-dissolving drugs
    • Coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • Coronary artery stents
    • Nitrates
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
    • Beta blockers
    • Oxygen
    • Coronary artery bypass
    • What can a patient expect during recovery from a heart attack?
    • How can a second heart attack be prevented?
  • Face Blindness (Prosopagnosia) Face blindness (prosopagnosia) is a condition that causes the inability to recognize faces. Face blindness may be caused by...learn more »
    In This Article
    Face Blindness (Prosopagnosia) Article
    • Prosopagnosia (face blindness) facts*
    • What is prosopagnosia?
    • Is there any treatment?
    • What is the prognosis?
    • What research is being done?
  • Advance Medical Directives (Living Will, Power of Attorney, and Health Care Proxy) Advance directives are designed to outline a person's wishes and preferences in regard to medical treatments and interventions....learn more »
    In This Article
    Advance Medical Directives (Living Will, Power of Attorney, and Health Care Proxy) Article
    • Advance medical directive facts
    • Introduction to advance medical directives
    • What is the importance of an advance directive?
    • What is the history of advance directives?
    • The current situation
    • When do advance directives become helpful?
    • How can one obtain and prepare living will and advance medical directive forms?
  • Biorhythms Biologic rhythms, or biorhythms, are how our bodies respond to the regular phases of the sun, moon, and seasons. A medical...learn more »
    In This Article
    Biorhythms Article
    • What are biologic rhythms?
    • How does the "body clock" affects symptoms of illness?
    • What are examples of specific diseases affected by biorhythms?
    • Angina
    • Heart attack
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
    • Asthma
    • Can the "body clock"  affect diagnostic testing?
    • Can drug therapy be matched to the "body clock?"
  • Fitness Regular physical activity can reduce the risk of disease. Regular exercise can also reduce the symptoms of stress and anxiety....learn more »
    In This Article
    Fitness Article
    • The importance of physical activity and fitness
    • Why should I be active?
    • Can everyone benefit from physical activity?
    • What are the recommendations for increasing fitness for youth, adults, and seniors?
    • How do I get started with a fitness plan?
    • When is a medical evaluation necessary?
    • How can I make physical activity a part of my life?
    • What are the components of physical fitness?
    • Fitness terms
  • Men's Health Men's health is an important component to a happy lifestyle and healthy relationships. Eating healthy, exercise, managing stress,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Men's Health Article
    • Introduction to men's health
    • Prostate problems
    • Testosterone
    • Top 10 diseases that kill men
    • 1. Heart disease
    • 2. Cancers
    • 3. Injuries
    • 4. Stroke (cerebrovascular accident, CVA)
    • 5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • 6. Diabetes
    • 7. Influenza and pneumonia
    • 8. Suicide
    • 9. Kidney disease
    • 10. Alzheimer's disease
    • The checklist: How to stay healthy
  • Essential Mixed Cryoglobulinemia Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia is a condition caused by abnormal blood proteins called cryoglobulins. Symptoms include joint...learn more »
    In This Article
    Essential Mixed Cryoglobulinemia Article
    • What is cryoglobulinemia?
    • What conditions are associated with cryoglobulinemia?
    • What is essential mixed cryoglobulinemia?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia?
    • How is essential mixed cryoglobulinemia treated?
  • Binswanger's Disease Binswanger's disease is a type of vascular dementia that is caused by damage to the blood vessels that feed deep areas of the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Binswanger's Disease Article
    • What is Binswanger's disease and what causes it?
    • What are the symptoms of Binswanger's disease?
    • How is Binswanger's disease diagnosed?
    • Is there any treatment for Binswanger's disease?
    • What is the prognosis for Binswanger's disease?
    • What research is being done on Binswanger's disease?
  • First Aid First aid is a complicated subject and it is situation-specific. First aid is the help and medical assistance that someone gives,...learn more »
    In This Article
  • Hypothermia (Extended Exposure to Cold) Hyothermia or extreme exposure to cold can be classified as either accidental hypothermia (unintentional cold exposure) and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hypothermia (Extended Exposure to Cold) Article
    • What is hypothermia?
    • What are the risk factors for hypothermia?
    • What body parts are more susceptible to hypothermia?
    • What causes hypothermia?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of hypothermia?
    • When should I call my doctor for hypothermia?
    • How is hypothermia diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hypothermia?
    • Home remedies for hypothermia
    • What items should I have to be prepared to prevent hypothermia?
    • What is the prognosis for hypothermia?
  • Hospice Hospice is a service that offers support, resources, and assistance to terminally ill patients and their families. In such late...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hospice Article
    • Hospice facts
    • What is hospice care?
    • Why is hospice important?
    • What is the history of hospice?
    • What are the main goals of hospice care?
    • What are some misconceptions about hospice care?
    • What kinds of services does hospice care provide?
    • Are hospice services available for children?
    • Can hospice care be offered at home?
    • What are some medical conditions commonly referred to hospice?
    • How is referral to hospice made?
    • How does hospice care work?
    • Who is part of the hospice team?
    • What is respite care?
    • Who is eligible for hospice care?
    • Who pays for hospice care?
    • How can people find and choose hospice care?
    • What questions should people ask of hospice agencies?
    • Where can a person find more information about hospice care?
  • Khat Khat (Abyssinian tea, African salad, oat, kat, chat, and catha) is a flowering evergreen shrub native to East Africa and the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Khat Article
    • What is Khat and what are the street names for Khat?
    • What does Khat look like?
    • How is Khat used?
    • What are the health side effects of Khat use?
    • Who uses Khat?
    • How does Khat get to the United States?
    • Who much does Khat cost?
  • Stroke Prevention Stroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Prevention Article
    • Introduction
    • What is a Stroke?
    • What are Warning Signs of a Stroke?
    • What are Risk Factors for a Stroke?
    • What Are the Treatable Risk Factors?
    • Do You Know Your Stroke Risk?
  • Disease Prevention in Men Disease prevention in men includes routine screening tests that are part of basic prevention medicine. Take an active role in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Men Article
    • Disease prevention in men introduction
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Cancer of colon and rectum /polyps of colon and rectum
    • Prostate cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
    • Bladder cancer
  • Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Article
    • Homocysteine, folic acid, and B vitamins
    • What about antioxidants for heart attack prevention?
    • How about exercise for heart attack prevention?
    • What about smoking cessation for heart attack prevention?
    • Recommendations to prevent heart attacks
  • Smoking and Heart Disease Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking and Heart Disease Article
    • Smoking and heart disease introduction
    • How does smoking increase heart disease risk?
    • How can quitting smoking be helpful?
    • How to quit smoking
    • What should I do first to stop smoking?
    • How can I avoid smoking again?
    • How will I feel when I quit smoking?
  • Carotid Artery Disease The term carotid artery disease refers to the narrowing of the carotid arteries and can also be called carotid stenosis. Fatty...learn more »
    In This Article
    Carotid Artery Disease Article
    • Carotid artery disease introduction
    • How does carotid artery disease happen?
    • What are the risk factors for carotid artery disease?
    • What are the symptoms of carotid artery disease?
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • How is carotid artery disease diagnosed
    • What's the treatment for carotid artery disease?
    • What are the recommended lifestyle changes for carotid artery disease?
    • Which drugs can reduce the risk of stroke?
    • What medical procedures treat carotid artery disease

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