Stool Color Changes in Color, Texture, and Form

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Stool color, texture, and form changes facts

  • The normal stool (poop, feces) usually is light to dark brown.
  • Although changes in stool color or texture may be normal, most changes should be evaluated.
  • The symptoms associated with stool color changes, if any, are the symptoms of the underlying cause cause of the change, for example, foods, drinks, conditions, or illnesses such as
  • Changes in stool color may be due to diarrhea; bleeding in the intestine; diseases of the intestines, liver, or pancreas; and medications
  • Diagnosis when stool color changes depends on what process is suspected of causing the change, for example, gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy if bleeding is supsected.
  • The treatment for stool color changes is to treat the underlying cause.

Definition of stool color changes

  • Stool (feces or poop) is the waste product of digestion.
  • Food mixes with bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas allowing protein, carbohydrates, and fats in the diet to be broken down to form a slurry.
  • This liquid mixture then passes through the small intestine where nutrients are absorbed into the blood stream, and the leftover liquid waste is delivered to the colon.
  • In the colon, water is absorbed and results in stool formation.
  • Normal stool contains bacteria and undigested or partially digested food, especially cellulose from plant material, and bile.
  • Bacteria are capable of breaking down this undigested food for their own personal use, and some of the products of their activity are absorbed back into the body.
  • There is moderate variation among individuals with respect to stool color, quantity and form; however, changes in color, form, texture, and quantity can be an indicator of GI health or disease especially if there are changes.

What is the color of normal stool?

Stool (feces) color is most commonly brown. When stool color changes an person often becomes concerned. The presence of the bilirubin in the bile (a breakdown product of the hemoglobin in red blood cells that are normally destroyed after a useful life of several weeks) is generally responsible for stool color. Bilirubin concentration can vary the color of stool from light yellow to almost black. Changes in the chemical structure of the bilirubin can cause stool to turn green or yellow. Yellow stool also may occur if stool is dilute or there is a reduction in the amount of bilirubin that is produced by the liver. Bacteria and digestive enzymes in the intestine can act on the bilirubin and change its color. Most stool-to-stool changes in color have little meaning. However, some changes, particularly if the changes are consistent over time and not present in only one stool, can be important.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 9/16/2015

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Stool Color Changes - Color and Experience Question: What color, texture, or smell; is or was your stool when it changed? Please share your experience.
Stool Color Changes - Symptoms Question: What symptoms did you experience with changes in stool color, texture, or form?
Stool Color Changes - Contacting a Doctor Question: What prompted you to contact a doctor about changes in stool changes?
Stool Color Changes - Causes and Diagnosis Question: What was the cause of your stool to change (in color, texture, odor, etc.); and how was the diagnosis of the cause made?
Stool Color Changes - Causes Question: What was the cause of the changes in color, texture, or form of your stool?
Stool Color Changes - Size and Shape Symptoms Question: What symptoms did you have with changes in the size and shape of your stool, and if known, what was the cause?

Rectal Bleeding (Blood in Stool, Hematochezia)

Causes of Blood in Stool

Blood in the stool can be bright red, maroon in color, black and tarry, or occult (not visible to the naked eye). Causes of blood in stool range from harmless, annoying conditions of the gastrointestinal tract such as hemorrhoids to serious conditions such as cancer.