Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Stem cells are cells that have the potential to develop into many different
or specialized cell types. Stem cells can be thought of as primitive,
"unspecialized" cells that are able to divide and become specialized cells of
the body such as liver cells, muscle cells, blood cells, and other cells with
specific functions. Stem cells are referred to as "undifferentiated" cells
because they have not yet committed to a developmental path that will form a
specific tissue or organ. The process of changing into a specific cell type is
known as differentiation. In some areas of the body, stem cells divide regularly
to renew and repair the existing tissue. The bone marrow and gastrointestinal
tract are examples areas in which stem cells function to renew and repair
The best and most readily understood example of a stem cell in humans is that
of the fertilized egg, or zygote. A zygote is a single cell that is formed by
the union of a sperm and ovum. The sperm and the ovum each carry half of the
genetic material required to form a new individual. Once that single cell or
zygote starts dividing, it is known as an embryo. One cell becomes two, two
become four, four become eight, eight to sixteen, and so on; doubling rapidly
until it ultimately creates the entire sophisticated organism. That organism, a
person, is an immensely complicated structure consisting of many, many, billions
of cells with functions as diverse as those of your eyes, your heart, your
immune system, the color of your skin, your brain, etc. All of the specialized
cells that make up these body systems are descendants of the original zygote, a
stem cell with the potential to ultimately develop into all kinds of body cells.
The cells of a zygote are totipotent, meaning that they have the capacity to
develop into any type of cell in the body.
The process by which stem cells commit to become differentiated, or
specialized, cells is complex and involves the regulation of gene expression.
Research is ongoing to further understand the molecular events and controls
necessary for stem cells to become specialized cell types.
Studying stem cells will help us understand how they transform into the dazzling array of specialized cells that make us what we are. Some of the most serious medical conditions are due to problems that occur somewhere in this process. A better understanding of normal cell development will allow us to understand and perhaps correct the errors that cause these medical conditions.
Another potential application of stem cells is making cells and tissues for medical therapies. Today, donated organs and tissues are often used to replace those that are diseased or destroyed. Unfortunately, the number of people needing a transplant far exceeds the number of organs available for transplantation. Pluripotent stem cells offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells and tissues to treat a myriad of diseases, conditions, and disabilities including, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, burns, heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis.
SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, Stem Cell Information. Stem Cells and Diseases.
Heart disease refers to several conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. Arrhythmias, heart valve disease, congenital heart defects, and inflammation of the heart or its lining (the pericardium)"...