Spinal Cord Injury: Treatments and Rehabilitation (cont.)

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What Is a Spinal Cord Injury?

Although the hard bones of the spinal column protect the soft tissues of the spinal cord, vertebrae can still be broken or dislocated in a variety of ways and cause traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord. The segment of the cord that is injured, and the severity of the injury, will determine which body functions are compromised or lost. Because the spinal cord acts as the main information pathway between the brain and the rest of the body, a spinal cord injury can have significant physiological consequences.

Catastrophic falls, being thrown from a horse or through a windshield, or any kind of physical trauma that crushes and compresses the vertebrae in the neck can cause irreversible damage at the cervical level of the spinal cord and below. Paralysis of most of the body including the arms and legs, called quadriplegia, is the likely result. Automobile accidents are often responsible for spinal cord damage in the middle back (the thoracic or lumbar area), which can cause paralysis of the lower trunk and lower extremities, called paraplegia.

Other kinds of injuries that directly penetrate the spinal cord, such as gunshot or knife wounds, can either completely or partially sever the spinal cord and create life-long disabilities.

Most injuries to the spinal cord don't completely sever it. Instead, an injury is more likely to cause fractures and compression of the vertebrae, which then crush and destroy the axons, extensions of nerve cells that carry signals up and down the spinal cord between the brain and the rest of the body. An injury to the spinal cord can damage a few, many, or almost all of these axons. Some injuries will allow almost complete recovery. Others will result in complete paralysis.

Until World War II, a serious spinal cord injury usually meant certain death, or at best a lifetime confined to a wheelchair and an ongoing struggle to survive secondary complications such as breathing problems or blood clots. But today, improved emergency care for people with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the nervous system and even restore limited abilities.

Advances in research are giving doctors and patients hope that all spinal cord injuries will eventually be repairable. With new surgical techniques and exciting developments in spinal nerve regeneration, the future for spinal cord injury survivors looks brighter every day.

This information has been written to explain what happens to the spinal cord when it is injured, the current treatments for spinal cord injury patients, and the most promising avenues of research currently under investigation.

Facts and Figures About Spinal Cord Injury

  • There are an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 spinal cord injuries every year in the United States.
  • About 200,000 Americans are currently living with spinal cord injuries.
  • The average cost of managing the care of spinal a cord injury patient is between $15,000 and $30,000 per year.
  • Forty-six percent of all spinal cord injuries happen during car accidents. Sixteen percent, are the result of injuries relating to violent encounters. The rest are due to sporting accidents, falls, and work-related accidents.
  • Fifty to seventy percent of spinal cord injury victims are between 15 and 35 years old.
  • Eighty  percent of spinal cord injury patients are men

Source: Facts and Figures at a Glance, May 2001. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 1/28/2014

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