Smoking and Quitting Smoking Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical conditions are often related to other diseases and conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Smoking and Quitting Smoking. These conditions may be a cause or symptom of Smoking and Quitting Smoking or be a condition for which you may be at increased risk.

  • Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition with signs and symptoms of vaginal discharge, vaginal odor,...learn more »
  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of the bladder, kidneys, ureters, or urethra. E. coli, a type of bacteria that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Article
    • What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
    • What are causes and risk factors for a urinary tract infection?
    • Are urinary tract infections contagious?
    • What are urinary tract infection symptoms and signs?
    • When should people seek medical care for a UTI?
    • How do health care professionals diagnose a urinary tract infection?
    • What kinds of doctors treat urinary tract infections?
    • Are there home remedies for a urinary tract infection?
    • What is the treatment for a urinary tract infection?
    • How long does a UTI last after treatment with antibiotics?
    • What follow-up is needed for a urinary tract infection?
    • Is it possible to prevent a urinary tract infection?
    • What is the prognosis of a urinary tract infection?
  • Canker Sores Canker sores are a common complaint, and are small ulcers on the inside of the mouth. Canker sores aren't contagious (as opposed...learn more »
  • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Symptoms, Stages, and Prognosis Congestive heart failure (CHF) refers to a condition in which the heart loses the ability to function properly. Heart disease,...learn more »
  • Headache Headaches can be divided into two categories: primary headaches and secondary headaches. Migraine headaches, tension headaches,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Headache Article
    • Headache definition and facts
    • What is a headache?
    • How are headaches classified?
    • What are primary headaches?
    • What are secondary headaches?
    • What are cranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches?
    • 17 types of headaches
    • What causes headaches?
    • What causes tension headaches?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of tension headaches?
    • How are tension headaches diagnosed?
    • How are tension headaches treated?
    • What causes cluster headaches?
    • What are the symptoms of cluster headaches?
    • How are cluster headaches diagnosed?
    • How are cluster headaches treated?
    • Can cluster headaches be prevented?
    • What diseases cause secondary headaches?
    • How are secondary headaches diagnosed?
    • What are the exams and tests for secondary headaches?
    • When should I seek medical care for a headache?
    • How do you get rid of a headache? Are home remedies effective for headaches?
  • Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count) Polycythemia (elevated red blood cell count) is a rare blood disease in which the body produces too many red blood cells....learn more »
    In This Article
    Polycythemia (High Red Blood Cell Count) Article
    • Polycythemia (high red blood cell count) definition and facts
    • What is polycythemia?
    • What are normal ranges of hematocrit, red cell counts, and hemoglobin?
    • What causes polycythemia?
    • What are the causes of primary polycythemia?
    • What are the common causes of secondary polycythemia?
    • Can other sources of erythropoietin (EPO) cause polycythemia?
    • What is relative polycythemia?
    • What are the risk factors for polycythemia?
    • What is stress polycythemia?
    • What are the symptoms of polycythemia?
    • When should I see a doctor about polycythemia?
    • How is the condition diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for polycythemia?
    • What are the complications of polycythemia?
    • Can polycythemia be prevented?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for polycythemia?
  • Swollen Ankles and Swollen Feet Swollen ankles and swollen feet is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition such as edema, medications, pregnancy,...learn more »
  • Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) Signs and symptoms of pregnancy vary by stage (trimester).  The earliest pregnancy symptom is typically a missed period, but...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) Article
    • Pregnancy definition and facts*
    • How many weeks is a normal term pregnancy?
    • What is the first trimester of pregnancy (week 1-week 12)?
    • What is the second trimester of pregnancy (week 13-week 28)?
    • What is the third trimester trimester of pregnancy (week 29-week 40)?
    • How will my baby develop week by week?
    • What are the changes that happen to a woman's body during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester of her pregnancy?
    • Body aches
    • Breast changes
    • Constipation
    • Dizziness
    • Fatigue, sleep problems
    • Heartburn and indigestion
    • Hemorrhoids during pregnancy
    • Itching
    • Leg cramps
    • Morning sickness
    • Nasal problems
    • Numb or tingling hands
    • Stretch marks, skin changes
    • Swelling
    • Urinary frequency and leaking
    • Varicose veins
  • Rosacea Rosacea is a skin disease that causes redness of the forehead, chin, and lower half of the nose. In addition to inflammation of...learn more »
  • Osteoporosis Learn about osteoporosis, a condition characterized by the loss of bone density, which leads to an increased risk of bone...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteoporosis Article
    • Osteoporosis facts
    • What is osteoporosis?
    • What are osteoporosis causes and risk factors?
    • What are osteoporosis symptoms and signs?
    • What are the consequences of osteoporosis?
    • Why is osteoporosis an important public health issue?
    • What factors determine bone strength?
    • What tests do health care professionals use in the diagnosis of osteoporosis?
    • What types of health care professionals treat osteoporosis?
    • Who should have bone density testing?
    • What is the treatment for osteoporosis, and can osteoporosis be prevented?
    • Exercise, quitting cigarettes, and curtailing alcohol
    • Calcium supplements for osteoporosis
    • Vitamin D for osteoporosis
    • Can adding certain foods to one's diet help to prevent osteoporosis?
    • Are there foods to avoid when it comes to osteoporosis?
    • Hormone therapy (menopausal hormone therapy)
    • Medications that prevent bone loss and breakdown
    • Choosing an osteoporosis medication
    • Prevention of osteoporosis due to long-term corticosteroids
    • Monitoring osteoporosis therapy
    • Prevention of hip fractures in elderly people with osteoporosis
    • What are complications of osteoporosis?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with osteoporosis?
  • Hiccups Hiccups are a sudden, involuntary contraction of the diaphragm muscle. In general hiccups are just a temporary condition. Some of...learn more »
  • Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy located outside the inner lining of the uterus. The majority of ectopic pregnancies occur in...learn more »
  • Migraine Headache Migraine headaches are severe headaches that are sensitive to light, sounds, and smells. Some people who suffer from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Migraine Headache Article
    • Migraine headache definition and facts
    • What is a migraine headache?
    • What is migraine with aura?
    • What are migraine triggers?
    • What are the signs and symptoms?
    • What causes migraines?
    • What are the risk factors?
    • How can I tell if it's a migraine or a different type of headache?
    • What are the treatments for migraine headaches?
    • Migraine medications
    • What remedies and lifestyle changes help manage and decrease the frequency of migraines?
    • How are migraines managed during pregnancy?
    • How are migraines managed in children?
    • What is the prognosis for a person with migraines?
    • Can the frequency of headaches be prevented?
  • Dry Socket A dry socket is a potential complication that can occur when a blood clot in the gums becomes dislodged after a tooth extraction....learn more »
  • Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Thrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the Candida fungus. Symptoms of Thrush include pain or difficulty swallowing, a...learn more »
  • Heartburn (Acid Reflux) Heartburn is a burning sensation experienced from acid reflux (GERD). Symptoms of heartburn include chest pain, burning in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heartburn (Acid Reflux) Article
    • Heartburn facts
    • What is the definition of heartburn?
    • What causes heartburn?
    • What does acid reflux look like?
    • What are the symptoms of heartburn?
    • Foods and beverages to avoid
    • How is heartburn diagnosed?
    • What are treatments, relief, and home remedies for heartburn?
    • Lifestyle changes
    • OTC and prescription medications for heartburn
    • Surgical procedures to treat heartburn
    • Heartburn during pregnancy
    • How can heartburn be prevented?
  • Lung Cancer Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung...learn more »
  • Laryngitis Laryngitis is an inflammation of the voice box (vocal cords). The most common cause of acute laryngitis is infection, which...learn more »
  • Restless Leg Syndrome Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a common cause for painful legs that typically eases with motion, and becomes worse and more...learn more »
  • Stroke (Signs, Symptoms, Warning Signs) A stroke is an interruption of the blood supply to part of the brain caused by either a blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke (Signs, Symptoms, Warning Signs) Article
    • Stroke definition and facts
    • What is a stroke?
    • What is the NIH Stroke Scale?
    • What are the risk factors for stroke?
    • What are the warning signs and symptoms of a stroke?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a stroke?
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the types of stroke?
    • What causes a stroke?
    • What tests diagnose stroke?
    • What is the treatment for stroke?
    • Is recovery after a stroke possible?
    • What is stroke rehabilitation?
    • What is the prognosis for a person that suffers a stroke?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat stroke?
    • Can strokes be prevented?
  • Chronic Rhinitis and Post-Nasal Drip Chronic rhinitis and post-nasal drip symptoms include: An itchy, runny nose  Sneezing Itchy ears, eyes, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chronic Rhinitis and Post-Nasal Drip Article
    • Chronic rhinitis and post-nasal drip definition and facts
    • Where are the sinuses, and what do they look like?
    • What are rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • What causes rhinitis?
    • Is rhinitis always related to allergies?
    • What conditions cause an abnormal production of nasal secretions?
    • What conditions cause an impaired clearance of nasal secretions?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat chronic rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • How can chronic rhinitis and post-nasal drip be treated?
    • What medications can be used to treat rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • What can be used to treat non-allergic rhinitis?
    • Does salt water or nasal irrigation have any role in the treatment of rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
    • What are other options for the treatment of rhinitis and post-nasal drip?
  • Eustachian Tube Problems (Ear Tube Dysfunction, Blockage) The Eustachian tube is a membrane lined tube that connects the middle ear space to the back of the nose. Symptoms of Eustachian...learn more »
    In This Article
    Eustachian Tube Problems (Ear Tube Dysfunction, Blockage) Article
    • Eustachian tube definition and facts
    • What is the function of the Eustachian tube?
    • What causes Eustachian tube dysfunction or blockage?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of Eustachian tube dysfunction?
    • What home remedies help clear Eustachian tube blockage?
    • What is the medical treatment for clearing Eustachian tube dysfunction or blockage?
    • What about Eustachian tube surgery?
    • How do changes in altitude or air travel affect Eustachian tube problems?
  • Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) refers to diseases of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) located outside the heart and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peripheral Vascular Disease Article
    • Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) definition and facts
    • What is peripheral vascular disease (PVD)?
    • Are atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease related?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of peripheral artery disease (PVD)?
    • Who is at risk for peripheral artery disease (PVD)?
    • How does atherosclerosis cause disease?
    • What are the other causes of peripheral vascular diseases?
    • Is there a test to diagnose peripheral artery disease (PVD)?
    • What are the management and treatment guidelines for peripheral vascualr disease (PVD)?
    • Medications to treat peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
    • Angioplasty to treat peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
    • Surgery to treat peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
    • Which specialties of doctors treat peripheral vascular disease (PVD)?
    • What are potential complications of peripheral artery disease (PVD)?
    • How can I prevent from getting peripheral vascular disease (PVD)?
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT, Blood Clot in the Legs) Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot in the deep veins, and can be caused by broken bones, trauma to a limb, immobility,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT, Blood Clot in the Legs) Article
    • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) definition and facts
    • What is DVT?
    • What does a blood clot in the leg look like?
    • What causes DVT?
    • Signs and symptoms of DVT
    • Signs and symptoms of superficial blood clots
    • Who is at risk?
    • Which types of doctors treat DVT?
    • What tests diagnose the condition?
    • What are the treatment guidelines for DVT?
    • What is the treatment of superficial blood clots?
    • Medications to treat blood clots in the leg
    • Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven)
    • Side effects and risks of anticoagulation therapy
    • Does DVT require surgery?
    • What are the complications?
    • How can blood clots in the legs be prevented?
  • Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Insulin Resistance Article
    • Insulin resistance definition and facts
    • What is insulin resistance?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance?
    • What causes insulin resistance?
    • What is the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes?
    • What are normal insulin levels?
    • What medical conditions are associated with insulin resistance?
    • Who is at risk for insulin resistance?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat insulin resistance?
    • Is there a test for insulin resistance?
    • Can insulin resistance be cured?
    • Is there a special diet plan for treating insulin resistance?
    • What foods help prevent type 2 diabetes?
    • What about exercise to treat insulin resistance?
    • What medications treat insulin resistance?
    • Can insulin resistance be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for a person with insulin resistance?
    • What's new in insulin resistance?
  • Peptic Ulcer (Stomach Ulcer) Peptic or stomach ulcers are ulcers are an ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Ulcer formation is related...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peptic Ulcer (Stomach Ulcer) Article
    • Peptic ulcer (stomach, duodenum) definition and facts
    • What is a peptic ulcer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of peptic ulcers?
    • What causes peptic ulcers?
    • What does a stomach ulcer look like?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat peptic ulcers?
    • How are peptic ulcers diagnosed?
    • Is there a special diet for peptic ulcer disease?
    • What is the treatment for peptic ulcers?
    • Antacids
    • H2 blockers
    • Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs)
    • H. pylori treatment
    • What are the complications of peptic ulcers?
    • What is the prognosis for a person with peptic ulcer disease?
  • Blood Clots Blood clots can occur in the venous and arterial vascular system. Blood clots can form in the heart, legs, arteries, veins,...learn more »
  • 25 Sore Throat Home Remedies These 25 sore throat natural and home remedies can help soothe throat pain, and heal a sore throat caused by viral (common cold,...learn more »
    In This Article
    25 Sore Throat Home Remedies Article
    • What home remedies help to soothe a sore throat?
    • Warm saltwater gargle
    • Drink warm liquids
    • Sage/Echinacea throat spray
    • Apple cider vinegar
    • Raw garlic
    • Honey
    • Throat Coat tea
    • Suck on ice chips
    • Peppermint essential oil
    • Licorice
    • Marshmallow root
    • Slippery Elm
    • Acupuncture
    • Frozen foods
    • Eat chicken soup
    • A humidifier
    • A warm compress
    • Throat spray
    • Lozenges or cough drops
    • Hard candy
    • Zinc lozenges
    • Drink plenty of fluids
    • Rest
    • Quit smoking
    • Over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications for sore throat pain
  • Osteopenia Osteopenia is a bone condition characterized by bone loss that is not as severe as in osteoporosis. Bone fracture is the typical...learn more »
    In This Article
    Osteopenia Article
    • Osteopenia facts
    • What is osteopenia?
    • Osteopenia vs. osteoporosis
    • Osteopenia vs. osteomalacia
    • What risk factors and causes of osteopenia?
    • What are osteopenia symptoms and signs?
    • Why is osteopenia important?
    • When should someone see a doctor for osteopenia?
    • What types of specialists treat osteopenia?
    • What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose osteopenia?
    • Who should be tested for osteopenia?
    • What is the treatment for osteopenia?
    • Is there a recommended diet for people with osteopenia?
    • What follow-up is needed after treatment of osteopenia has been initiated?
    • Is it possible to prevent osteopenia?
    • Is osteopenia reversible?
    • What is the prognosis of osteopenia?
  • Pneumonia Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Symptoms and signs include cough, fever, shortness...learn more »
  • Heart Disease Heart disease (coronary artery disease) occurs when plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Disease Article
    • Heart (cardiovascular) disease definition and facts
    • What is heart (cardiovascular) disease?
    • Who is at risk for heart (cardiovascular) disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of heart (cardiovascular) disease?
    • What causes heart (cardiovascular) disease?
    • How is heart (cardiovascular) disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for heart (cardiovascular) disease?
    • What lifestyle changes can a person make to prevent further heart disease or heart attack?
    • What is the medical treatment for heart (cardiovascular) disease?
    • How many people have heart (cardiovascular) disease, and what is the prognosis?
    • Can cardiovascular disease be prevented?
  • Esophagitis Esophagitis is caused by an infection or irritation of the esophagus. Infections that cause esophagitis include candida yeast...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophagitis Article
    • Facts and definition of esophagitis
    • What is esophagitis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of esophagitis?
    • What are the types of esophagitis?
    • What causes esophagitis?
    • What are the grades of esophagitis?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat esophagitis?
    • How is esophagitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for esophagitis?
    • What about esophagitis and diet?
    • What options are there for pain relief for esophagitis?
    • What are the complications of esophagitis?
    • Can esophagitis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for a person with esophagitis?
  • Hoarseness Hoarseness (abnormal deep, harsh, raspy voice) is caused by a variety of conditions in which the larynx (voice box and vocal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hoarseness Article
    • Hoarseness facts
    • What is hoarseness?
    • What causes hoarseness?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of hoarseness?
    • How are the causes of hoarseness diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for hoarseness?
    • How is hoarseness prevented?
  • Bronchitis (Acute) Bronchitis is inflammation of the airways in the lung. Acute bronchitis is is short in duration (10 to 20 days) in comparison...learn more »
  • Raynaud's Phenomenon Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by a pale-blue-red sequence of color changes of the digits, most commonly after exposure to...learn more »
  • Tongue Problems There are a variety of diseases and conditions that can cause tongue problems, discoloration, and soreness. Though most tongue...learn more »
    In This Article
    Tongue Problems Article
    • Tongue facts
    • What are common tongue problems?
    • What causes tongue problems?
    • What are the risk factors for tongue problems?
    • White tongue
    • Red tongue
    • Black tongue
    • Increased size or tongue swelling
    • Growths on the tongue
    • Abnormalities of the tongue surface
    • Tongue pain
    • Altered sensation of the tongue
    • Taste problems
    • Problems with tongue movement
    • What are tongue problems in infants and children?
    • What are tongue problems in pregnancy?
    • What specialists treat tongue problems?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose tongue problems?
    • Are there home remedies for tongue problems?
    • What are the treatments for tongue problems?
    • Is it possible to prevent tongue problems?
    • What is the prognosis for tongue problems?
  • Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophageal Cancer Article
    • Esophageal cancer facts
    • What is the esophagus?
    • What is esophageal cancer?
    • What are risk factors and causes of esophageal cancer?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of esophageal cancer?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose esophageal cancer?
    • How do physicians determine esophageal cancer staging?
    • What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
    • What are the treatment for esophageal cancer?
    • What kinds of doctors treat esophageal cancer?
    • What are the statistics related to esophageal cancer?
    • What support is available for those with esophageal cancer?
    • What is the prognosis with esophageal cancer? What is the survival rate for esophageal cancer?
    • Is it possible to prevent esophageal cancer?
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a GI (gastrointestinal) disorder with signs and symptoms of: Abdominal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Article
    • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) definition and facts
    • What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What are IBS-D (IBS with diarrhea) and IBS-C (IBS with constipation)?
    • Are IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) and IBD (inflammatory bowel syndrome) the same disease?
    • What are the causes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • Is there a test to diagnose irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What is the treatment for irritable bowel syndrome?
    • What medications treat diarrhea (IBS-D) and constipation (IBS-D) in irritable bowel syndrome?
    • What medications treat pain and cramping in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What other medication may help signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • Is there an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diet (foods to avoid, foods to eat)?
    • What is a low FODMAP diet?
    • What natural and home remedies or other lifestyle changes may help IBS symptoms and signs?
    • Is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) related to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?
    • What are potential complications of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • Is it possible to prevent irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
    • What is the prognosis for a person with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a "silent" disease because early...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pancreatic Cancer Article
    • Pancreatic cancer facts
    • What does a pancreas do?
    • What is cancer?
    • What is pancreatic cancer and its types?
    • What are pancreatic cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are pancreatic cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer made?
    • How is pancreatic cancer staged?
    • What is the treatment for resectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer?
    • What are the side effects of pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • What is the survival rate with pancreatic cancer?
    • What research is being done on pancreatic cancer?
    • Is complimentary or alternative medicine effective in pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • Is it possible to prevent pancreatic cancer?
    • Where can people get support when coping with pancreatic cancer?
    • Where can people find additional information about pancreatic cancer?
  • Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a condition that causes pain in the mouth. BMS may be caused by menopause, dry mouth or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) Article
    • Burning mouth syndrome facts*
    • What is burning mouth syndrome?
    • What are burning mouth syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose burning mouth syndrome?
    • What causes primary and secondary burning mouth syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for burning mouth syndrome?
    • What are helpful tips for coping with burning mouth syndrome?
  • Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs, PVC) Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs, PVC) are premature heartbeats originating from the ventricles of the heart. PVCs are...learn more »
  • Anxiety Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension and fear characterized by symptoms such as trouble concentrating, headaches, sleep problems,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anxiety Article
    • Generalized anxiety disorder facts
    • What is anxiety?
    • What are the types of anxiety disorders?
    • What are anxiety symptoms and signs?
    • What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
    • How common is generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Are other mental health diagnoses associated with generalized anxiety disorder?
    • What are causes and risk factors for generalized anxiety disorder?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
    • What types of specialists treat generalized anxiety disorder?
    • What is the treatment for anxiety?
    • What are the side effects of anxiety medications?
    • What are complications of generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Is it possible to prevent anxiety?
    • What is the prognosis of generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Are there support groups for those with generalized anxiety disorder?
    • Where can people find additional information on generalized anxiety disorder?
  • Snoring Snoring, like all other sounds, is caused by vibrations that cause particles in the air to form sound waves. While we are asleep,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Snoring Article
    • Snoring facts
    • What is snoring?
    • How common is snoring?
    • What causes snoring?
    • The function of the nose in normal breathing
    • How do medications and alcohol affect snoring?
    • Why is snoring a problem?
    • What is the clinical importance of snoring?
    • What are different levels of snoring?
    • How should someone with snoring be evaluated?
    • How is it determined if snoring is a medical problem?
    • What are some objective tests to measure sleepiness?
    • What are the treatments for snoring?
    • What are some non-surgical treatments for snoring?
    • What are the surgical options for snoring?
    • What is the success of surgery for snoring?
  • Phlebitis Phlebitis is the inflammation of a vein. Thrombophlebitis is when a blood clot causes the inflammation. Phlebitis can be...learn more »
    In This Article
    Phlebitis Article
    • Phlebitis facts
    • What is phlebitis and thrombophlebitis?
    • What causes phlebitis?
    • What are the risk factors for phlebitis?
    • What are the symptoms of phlebitis?
    • How is phlebitis diagnosed?
    • How is phlebitis treated?
    • What are the complications of phlebitis?
    • Can phlebitis be prevented?
  • Gum Disease Gum disease is caused by plaque and may result in tooth loss without proper treatment. Symptoms and signs of gum disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gum Disease Article
    • What is gum disease (gingivitis)?
    • What is the difference between gingivitis and periodontal disease?
    • What causes gum disease?
    • Does gum disease cause bad breath?
    • What does gum disease look like? What are gum disease symptoms and signs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose gum disease?
    • What is the treatment for gum disease?
    • What types of specialists treat gum disease?
    • What types of medication are used to treat gum disease?
    • Are home remedies or natural treatments effective for gum disease?
    • Is it possible to reverse gum disease?
    • Is gum disease associated with other health problems?
    • How is gum disease managed in children?
    • How is gum disease managed in pregnancy?
    • Is it possible to prevent gum disease?
    • What is the best toothpaste to use to prevent gum disease?
    • Is gum disease contagious?
  • Barrett's Esophagus Barrett's esophagus occurs as a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), primarily in white males. GERD...learn more »
    In This Article
    Barrett's Esophagus Article
    • Barrett's esophagus facts
    • What is Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is there so much interest in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What causes Barrett's esophagus?
    • Who develops Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the specific abnormality in the inner lining (epithelium) of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What about the cancer that occurs in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus?
    • What is the risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in Barrett's?
    • What are the symptoms of Barrett's esophagus?
    • How is GERD with or without Barrett's esophagus treated?
    • Why is it important to screen patients with GERD to diagnose Barrett's esophagus?
    • Why is it critical to be accurate in the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus?
    • What does endoscopic biopsy surveillance in Barrett's esophagus involve?
    • How is high grade dysplasia managed?
    • How is low grade dysplasia managed?
    • What are the experimental approaches for treatment of high grade dysplasia?
    • What experimental options are there for Barrett's esophagus WITHOUT dysplasia?
    • What does the future hold for Barrett's esophagus?
  • Larynx Cancer (Throat Cancer) Symptoms of cancer of the larynx, the organ at the front of the neck, include hoarseness, a lump in the neck, sore throat, cough,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Larynx Cancer (Throat Cancer) Article
    • Throat cancer (larynx cancer) facts*
    • What is throat (larynx) cancer?
    • What causes throat cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for throat cancer?
    • What are the types of larynx (throat) cancer?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of throat cancer?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose throat cancer?
    • How is throat cancer staging determined?
    • What kinds of specialists treat throat cancer?
    • What is the treatment for throat cancer?
    • Are there home remedies for throat (larynx) cancer?
    • What kind of support is available for those with throat cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for patients with throat cancer?
    • Is it possible to prevent throat cancer?
  • Claudication Intermittent claudication, or pain and cramping in the lower leg is caused by inadequate blood flow to the leg muscles. This lack...learn more »
    In This Article
    Claudication Article
    • What is claudication?
    • What causes claudication?
    • What are the symptoms of claudication?
    • Why does claudication come and go?
    • What can cause the artery narrowing that leads to claudication?
    • Who typically is affected by claudication?
    • What are the risk factors for claudication and peripheral vascular disease?
    • How is claudication diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for claudication?
    • Can claudication be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis and treatment for patients with intermittent claudication?
  • Interstitial Pneumonitis (Interstitial Lung Disease) Interstitial lung disease refers to a variety of diseased that thicken the tissue between the lungs' air sacks. Viruses,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Interstitial Pneumonitis (Interstitial Lung Disease) Article
    • Interstitial lung disease definition and facts
    • What is interstitial lung disease?
    • What are signs and symptoms of interstitial lung disease?
    • What causes interstitial lung disease?
    • How is interstitial lung disease diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for interstitial lung disease?
    • What is the prognosis for interstitial lung disease?
    • Can interstitial lung disease be prevented?
  • Cough (Chronic Cough) Chronic cough is a cough that does not go away and is generally a symptom of another disorder such...learn more »
  • Bladder Cancer Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Cancer Article
    • Bladder cancer facts
    • What is the bladder?
    • What are the layers of the bladder?
    • What is bladder cancer?
    • What is the burden of bladder cancer in the U.S.?
    • What are the types of bladder cancer?
    • What are bladder cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are bladder cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
    • How is bladder cancer staging determined?
    • What is bladder cancer grading?
    • What is transurethral surgery (TURBT) for bladder cancer?
    • What is the treatment for superficial bladder cancer?
    • What is surveillance for bladder cancer?
    • What is the treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer?
    • What is chemotherapy for bladder cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for bladder cancer?
    • Can bladder cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information on bladder cancer?
    • What research is being done on bladder cancer?
  • Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) is a rare type of cancer that arises from cells that line the drainage system from the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Article
    • What is bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)? What are causes and risk factors for bile duct cancer?
    • What are bile duct cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How do physicians diagnose bile duct cancer?
    • What is the treatment for bile duct cancer?
    • What are the complications of bile duct cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for bile duct cancer? What is the life expectancy for bile duct cancer?
    • Is it possible to prevent bile duct cancer?
    • What are the statistics for bile duct cancer?
  • Kidney Cancer There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell cancer (renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma), transitional cell...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Cancer Article
    • Kidney cancer facts*
    • What are the kidneys?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are kidney cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are kidney cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is kidney cancer diagnosed?
    • How is kidney cancer staging determined?
    • What are kidney cancer treatments?
    • Targeted Therapy
    • Biological Therapy
    • Second Opinion
    • Nutrition
    • Follow-up Care
    • Sources of Support
    • Taking Part in Cancer Research
  • Cluster Headaches The term cluster headache is a type of headache that recurs over a period of time. There are episodes that last one to three...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cluster Headaches Article
    • What are cluster headaches?
    • Who gets cluster headaches?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of cluster headaches?
    • What causes cluster headaches?
    • What triggers cluster headaches?
    • How are cluster headaches diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cluster headaches?
    • Can cluster headaches be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for cluster headaches?
  • Anal Cancer Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Cancer Article
    • Anal cancer facts*
    • Anal anatomy
    • What is anal cancer?
    • What are the different types of anal cancer?
    • What are other types of anal masses or growths?
    • What are anal cancer statistics?
    • What causes anal cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of anal cancer?
    • What's involved with anal cancer screening (early detection)?
    • How do health care professionals make a diagnosis of anal cancer?
    • How do health care professionals determine anal cancer staging?
    • What types of health care professionals diagnose and treat anal cancer?
    • What is the medical treatment for anal cancer?
    • Surgery for anal cancer
    • Radiation therapy for anal cancer
    • Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy for anal cancer
    • What are treatment options for stage IV anal cancer or metastasis?
    • Is it possible to prevent anal cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for anal cancer?
    • Where can one find information about clinical trials or research for anal cancer?
  • Heart Attack Heart attack happens when a blood clot completely obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscle. A heart attack...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Article
    • Heart attack facts
    • What is a heart attack?
    • What causes a heart attack?
    • What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
    • What are the complications of a heart attack?
    • What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis and heart attack?
    • How to diagnose a heart attack
    • What is the treatment for heart attack?
    • What are the risk factors for heart attack in women?
    • What are the symptoms of heart attack in women and how is heart attack diagnosed?
    • How is heart attack in women treated?
    • What about hormone therapy and heart attack in women?
    • What is new in heart attack?
  • Angina Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Angina Article
    • What is angina?
    • What causes angina?
    • What are the different types of angina?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of angina?
    • How is angina diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for angina?
    • Angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery
    • What are other methods are used to evaluate angina?
    • What is the prognosis for angina?
    • Can angina be prevented?
  • Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence) Erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence) is the failure to achieve or maintain an erection. There are many potential underlying...learn more »
    In This Article
    Erectile Dysfunction (ED, Impotence) Article
    • Erectile dysfunction (impotence) facts
    • What is erectile dysfunction (ED)?
    • What is normal penis anatomy?
    • How common is erectile dysfunction?
    • How does erection occur?
    • How is erection sustained?
    • What causes erectile dysfunction?
    • What are erectile dysfunction risk factors?
    • What are erectile dysfunction symptoms and signs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose erectile dysfunction?
    • What drugs treat erectile dysfunction?
    • What is the treatment for erectile dysfunction?
    • What are erectile dysfunction treatments for men with cardiovascular disease?
    • Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors
    • Sildenafil (Viagra)
    • Vardenafil (Levitra)
    • Tadalafil (Cialis)
    • Avanafil (Stendra)
    • What are intracavernosal injections?
    • What are intraurethral suppositories?
    • What is the role of testosterone therapy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction?
    • Can a penis pump (vacuum device) help erectile dysfunction?
    • What about psychological therapy for erectile dysfunction?
    • Surgery for erectile dysfunction
    • Can over-the-counter (OTC) and/or natural or home remedies treat erectile dysfunction?
    • Is it possible to prevent erectile dysfunction?
    • What is the prognosis for erectile dysfunction?
    • What research is being done for erectile dysfunction?
  • Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease that gradually destroys the central vision. In people over 60, AMD is a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Macular Degeneration Article
    • Macular degeneration facts
    • What is macular degeneration?
    • What is the retina?
    • What is the macula?
    • What is age-related macular degeneration (AMD)?
    • What is wet age-related macular degeneration?
    • What are retinal drusen?
    • What is dry age-related macular degeneration?
    • What causes macular degeneration?
    • What are risk factors for macular degeneration?
    • What are macular degeneration symptoms?
    • What are signs of macular degeneration?
    • What type of specialist treats macular degeneration?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose macular degeneration?
    • What is the treatment for wet macular degeneration?
    • What is the treatment for dry macular degeneration?
    • What are complications of macular degeneration?
    • What is the prognosis for macular degeneration?
    • Is it possible to prevent macular degeneration?
    • What research is being done on macular degeneration?
  • Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a cough that occurs daily with production of sputum that lasts for at least three months, two years in a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chronic Bronchitis Article
    • Bronchitis vs. chronic bronchitis definition and facts
    • What is bronchitis?
    • What is acute bronchitis?
    • What are the symptoms of acute bronchitis?
    • What is chronic bronchitis?
    • What are the causes of chronic bronchitis?
    • What are the risk factors for chronic bronchitis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis?
    • When should an person seek medical care for chronic bronchitis?
    • How is chronic bronchitis diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for chronic bronchitis?
    • What drugs treat chronic bronchitis exacerbations?
    • What are the complications of chronic bronchitis?
    • Can chronic bronchitis be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for chronic bronchitis?
  • Gangrene Gangrene may result when blood flow to a tissue is lost or not adequate to keep the tissue alive. There are two types of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gangrene Article
    • Gangrene facts
    • What is gangrene?
    • What is the difference between wet and dry gangrene?
    • What causes gangrene?
    • What are gangrene symptoms and signs?
    • How is gangrene diagnosed?
    • How is gangrene treated?
    • How can gangrene be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis (outlook) for a patient with gangrene?
  • Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) When a portion of the brain loses blood supply, through a blood clot or embolus, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, mini-stroke)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke) Article
    • Transient ischemic attack (TIA) facts
    • What is a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the causes of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the risk factors for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What are the symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • How is transient ischemic attack (TIA) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
    • What is the prognosis for transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
  • Cataracts A cataract is an eye disease that causes the eye's lens to become cloudy and opaque with decreased vision. Causes of cataracts...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cataracts Article
    • Facts about cataracts
    • What is a cataract?
    • What are the different types of cataracts?
    • What are risk factors for cataracts?
    • What are causes of cataracts?
    • What are the symptoms of cataracts?
    • What are the signs of cataracts?
    • What types of specialists treat cataracts?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose cataracts?
    • What is the treatment for cataracts?
    • What are risks of the different types of cataract surgery? How long is the recovery after cataract surgery?
    • What are complications of cataracts?
    • What is the prognosis of cataracts?
    • Is it possible to prevent cataracts?
    • Where can people get more information on cataracts?
  • Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint by a patient in the ER. Causes of chest pain include broken or bruised ribs, pleurisy,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chest Pain Article
    • Chest pain facts
    • Chest pain introduction
    • What are the sources of chest pain?
    • What are the causes of chest pain?
    • How is chest pain diagnosed?
    • What is the philosophy of the approach to chest pain diagnosis?
    • What is the diagnosis and treatment for chest pain?
    • Broken or bruised ribs
    • Costochondritis
    • Pleuritis or pleurisy
    • Pneumothorax
    • Shingles
    • Pneumonia
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Angina and heart attack (myocardial infarction)
    • Pericarditis
    • Aorta and aortic dissection
    • Esophagus and reflux esophagitis
    • Referred abdominal pain
  • Metabolic Syndrome The main features of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol...learn more »
    In This Article
    Metabolic Syndrome Article
    • What is metabolic syndrome?
    • How is metabolic syndrome defined?
    • How common is metabolic syndrome?
    • What causes, and what are the risk factors of metabolic syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of metabolic syndrome?
    • Why should I know about metabolic syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for metabolic syndrome?
    • Diet and metabolic syndrome
    • Exercise and metabolic syndrome
    • Cosmetic surgery to remove fat
    • What if lifestyle changes are not enough to treat metabolic syndrome?
    • Metabolic Syndrome Summary
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a ballooning or widening of the main artery (the aorta) as it courses down through the abdomen. Most...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Article
    • Abdominal aortic aneurysm facts
    • What is an aneurysm?
    • What is an aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the thoracic and abdominal aorta?
    • Where do aortic aneurysms tend to develop?
    • What shape are most aortic aneurysms?
    • What is inside an aortic aneurysm?
    • Who is most likely to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What are risk factors for aortic aneurysms?
    • What is the most common cause of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are other causes of aortic aneurysms?
    • What are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How is an abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed clinically?
    • What tests help in the diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • What is the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms?
    • What are the complications with an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • How are abdominal aortic aneurysms repaired?
    • What is done if an abdominal aortic aneurysm threatens to rupture?
    • What is the medical management (nonsurgical management) of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
  • Bad Breath Bad breath can result from poor oral hygiene habits and may be a sign of other health problems. Bad breath, also called...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bad Breath Article
    • Bad breath (halitosis) facts
    • What is the definition of bad breath?
    • What are the causes and health risk factors of bad breath?
    • What signs and symptoms may be associated with bad breath?
    • When should someone see a health care professional about bad breath?
    • What health care specialists treat halitosis?
    • How do health care professionals diagnose halitosis?
    • What are treatment options and home remedies for bad breath? What can be done to prevent bad breath?
    • What products can be used to eliminate or mask bad breath?
    • What is the prognosis for people with halitosis?
  • Head and Neck Cancer Head and neck cancer is cancer of the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, or lymph...learn more »
    In This Article
    Head and Neck Cancer Article
    • Head and neck cancer facts*
    • What is cancer?
    • What kinds of cancers are considered cancers of the head and neck?
    • How common are head and neck cancers?
    • What causes head and neck cancers?
    • What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
    • What health professionals treat patients with head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers treated?
    • Are clinical trials (research studies) available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • What rehabilitation or support options are available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve?
    • What can people who have had head and neck cancer do to reduce the risk of developing a second primary (new) cancer?
  • 19 Tips on How to Stop a Cough Coughing is a reflex that helps a person clear their airways of irritants. There are many causes of an excessive or severe...learn more »
    In This Article
    19 Tips on How to Stop a Cough Article
    • What causes coughing?
    • 19 natrual and home remedies to cure and soothe a cough
    • What over-the-counter (OTC) products cure or soothe a cough?
    • What prescription drugs cure a cough?
    • How can I get rid of a nighttime cough?
    • What kind of a doctor treats a cough?
    • When should I see a doctor about a cough?
  • Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a disease of the mucus and sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. The outcome of the disease...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cystic Fibrosis Article
    • Cystic fibrosis facts*
    • What is cystic fibrosis?
    • What are other names for cystic fibrosis?
    • What causes cystic fibrosis?
    • Is cystic fibrosis inherited?
    • Who is at risk for cystic fibrosis?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
    • How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed?
    • How is cystic fibrosis treated?
    • Living with cystic fibrosis
    • What is the outlook for cystic fibrosis?
  • Gum Problems Gum problems may be caused by improper brushing and flossing, gum disease, canker sores, treatments and hormonal changes....learn more »
    In This Article
    Gum Problems Article
    • Gum health introduction
    • What are common gum problems?
    • What causes gum problems?
    • What are the risk factors for gum problems?
    • What are signs and symptoms of gum problems?
    • How are gum problems diagnosed?
    • Can gum problems be a sign of something serious?
    • What is the treatment for gum problems? What are home remedies for gum problems?
    • What are the complications with gum problems?
    • What is the prognosis for gum problems?
    • What is the best way to care for your gums?
    • Is it possible to prevent gum problems?
  • Chewing Tobacco (Smokeless Tobacco, Snuff) Chewing tobacco (snuff or smokeless tobacco) has more nicotine absorbed into the system than by smoking a cigarette. Chewing...learn more »
    In This Article
    Chewing Tobacco (Smokeless Tobacco, Snuff) Article
    • Chewing tobacco facts
    • What is chewing tobacco?
    • What are the health risks of chewing tobacco?
    • Cancer risk and chewing tobacco
    • Other health risks of chewing tobacco
    • Is chewing tobacco safer than cigarette smoking?
    • What is being done to reduce the use of chewing tobacco?
    • What treatments are available to help people quit using chewing tobacco?
  • Healthy Living and Disease Prevention The importance of a healthy lifestyle in disease prevention is widely understood and most people know that lifestyle changes and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Healthy Living and Disease Prevention Article
    • Healthy living facts
    • Eating (diet)
    • Physical activity and exercise
    • Avoid tobacco use
    • Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
    • Avoid high-risk sexual behaviors
    • Avoid other high-risk behaviors
    • Additional tips for healthy living
  • Adult ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) About 2%-6% of adults have ADHD, a common behavioral problem. Symptoms include impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention....learn more »
    In This Article
    Adult ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) Article
    • Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) facts
    • What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
    • What are causes and risk factors for adult ADHD?
    • How prevalent is adult ADHD?
    • What are adult ADHD symptoms and signs?
    • What tests do health-care professionals use to diagnose adult ADHD?
    • What is the treatment for adult ADHD? What are adult ADHD medications?
    • Are there any home remedies for adult ADHD?
    • What are complications of adult ADHD?
    • What is the prognosis of adult ADHD?
    • Is it possible to prevent adult ADHD?
    • Are support groups available for those living with adult ADHD?
    • Where can people find additional information on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
  • Penis Cancer Signs and symptoms of penile cancer include a lump on the penis and redness, irritation, or a sore on the penis. Risk of penis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Penis Cancer Article
    • Penis cancer facts*
    • What is penile cancer?
    • What are causes and risk factors of penile cancer?
    • What are signs and symptoms of penis cancer?
    • What tests to health-care professionals use to diagnose penis cancer?
    • What factors affect the prognosis and treatment of penile cancer?
    • What are the stages of penile cancer?
    • What are the treatment options for patients with penile cancer?
    • What penis cancer treatments are being tested in clinical trials?
    • What are penile cnacer treatment options by stage?
    • What are treatment options for recurrent penile cancer?
  • Miscarriage Miscarriage is the medical term for the spontaneous loss of pregnancy from conception to 20 weeks gestation. Risk factors for a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Miscarriage Article
    • What is a miscarriage?
    • How common is miscarriage?
    • What causes miscarriage?
    • What are the types of miscarriage?
    • What are signs and symptoms of a miscarriage?
    • How is miscarriage diagnosed?
    • What happens after a miscarriage?
    • What is the outlook for future pregnancies after a miscarriage?
    • Can miscarriage be prevented?
  • Oral Cancer The term oral cancer includes cancer of the mouth (oral cavity) and the back of the mouth (oropharynx). Red and white patches...learn more »
    In This Article
    Oral Cancer Article
    • Oral cancer facts*
    • What is the oral cavity?
    • What is cancer?
    • Who's at risk for oral cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of oral cancer?
    • How is oral cancer diagnosed?
    • How is oral cancer treated?
    • Methods of treatment
    • What are the side effects of treatment for oral cancer?
    • What is rehabilitation for oral cancer?
    • What happens after treatment for oral cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with oral cancer?
    • What resources are available to patients with oral cancer?
  • Stomach Cancer Though the cause of stomach cancer is unknown, risk factors for stomach cancer include diet, H. pylori infection, smoking age,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stomach Cancer Article
    • Stomach cancer facts*
    • What is the stomach?
    • What is cancer, and how does stomach cancer spread?
    • What are risk factors and causes of stomach cancer?
    • What are symptoms of stomach cancer?
    • How is stomach cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for stomach cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation therapy
    • How do I go about getting a second opinion?
    • What are some of the nutritional concerns of stomach cancer patients?
    • What are treatment options for cancer that blocks the digestive tract?
    • What follow-up care is necessary for stomach cancer patients? What about complementary and alternative medicine?
    • What support is there for cancer patients?
    • How can I take part in clinical trials for stomach cancer?
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT) Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) is an abnormal conduction of electricity in particular areas of the heart. PSVT...learn more »
    In This Article
    Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT) Article
    • What is paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)?
    • What causes paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)?
    • What are the symptoms of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)?
    • How is paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)?
    • How can paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) be prevented?
  • Toothache A toothache is a pain on or around a tooth. It may be caused by a variety of things from a cavity, abscess, or even sinusitis....learn more »
    In This Article
    Toothache Article
    • What is a toothache?
    • What causes a toothache?
    • What are toothache symptoms and signs?
    • How is a toothache diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a toothache?
    • Are home remedies effective for a toothache?
    • How is a toothache treated during pregnancy?
    • What is the prognosis for a toothache?
    • Is it possible to prevent a toothache?
  • Dry Eyes Dry eyes are caused by an imbalance in the tear-flow system of the eye, but also can be caused by the drying out of the tear...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dry Eyes Article
    • Dry eye syndrome facts
    • What is dry eye syndrome?
    • What is the impact of dry eye syndrome?
    • What causes dry eye syndrome? What are the types of dry eye disease?
    • What are the risk factors for dry eye syndrome?
    • What are dry eye syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose dry eye syndrome?
    • What is the medical treatment for dry eye syndrome?
    • What types of medications are used in the medical treatment of dry eye syndrome?
    • Can self-care treatments and remedies help alleviate dry eyes?
    • What is chronic dry eye syndrome?
    • Can surgery treat dry eye syndrome?
    • What other therapies are used in the treatment of dry eye syndrome?
    • What are the health complications of dry eye syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis of dry eye syndrome?
    • Is it possible to prevent dry eye syndrome?
  • ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a lung condition in which trauma to the lungs leads to inflammation of the lungs,...learn more »
    In This Article
    ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) Article
    • ARDS facts*
    • What is ARDS?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of ARDS?
    • What causes ARDS?
    • Who is at risk for ARDS?
    • How is ARDS diagnosed?
    • How is ARDS treated?
    • What are the complications from ARDS?
    • Living with ARDS
    • What is the prognosis of ARDS?
    • What are other names for ARDS?
  • Asthma Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Asthma Article
    • What is the definition of asthma?
    • Asthma vs. COPD
    • What are risk factors and causes of asthma?
    • What are the different types of asthma?
    • What are asthma symptoms and signs?
    • How is asthma diagnosed?
    • What are asthma treatment options? Are there home remedies for asthma?
    • What should someone do when experiencing an asthma attack?
    • What is an asthma action plan?
    • What is the prognosis for asthma?
    • Is it possible to prevent asthma?
  • Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Symptoms, Treatment, Life Expectancy) Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene. People with the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Symptoms, Treatment, Life Expectancy) Article
    • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency definition and facts*
    • What is alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD)?
    • Chart of signs and symptoms of lung and liver disease caused by this condition
    • How common is alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency?
    • What gene mutations cause alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency?
    • What tests diagnose the condition?
    • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency treatment and management guidelines
    • FDA approved treatment medications
    • What's the prognosis and life expectancy for this condition?
    • Where can I find information about treatment for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency?
  • Drug Abuse Drug addiction is a chronic disease that causes drug-seeking behavior and drug use despite negative consequences to the user and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Drug Abuse Article
    • Drug use disorder facts
    • What is drug use disorder?
    • What types of drugs are commonly abused?
    • What are the physical and psychological effects of drug use disorders?
    • What are causes and risk factors for developing a drug use disorder?
    • What are warning signs that you or a loved one may have a drug use disorder?
    • What are symptoms and signs of drug use disorder?
    • What happens to your brain when you take drugs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose drug addiction?
    • What is the treatment for drug addiction?
    • What are complications of drug addiction?
    • What is the prognosis of drug use disorder?
    • Is it possible to prevent drug abuse and addiction?
    • Where can people get more information and help for drug use disorders?
  • Diabetes and Eye Problems Diabetes and eye problems are generally caused by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. Types of eye problems...learn more »
    In This Article
    Diabetes and Eye Problems Article
    • Eye problems and diabetes introduction
    • Cataracts and Diabetes
    • Glaucoma and Diabetes
    • Diabetic Retinopathy
    • Preventing Eye Problems With Diabetes
    • When to Contact Your Doctor About Eye Problems in Diabetes
  • Post-Polio Syndrome Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a group of signs and symptoms that show up two to four decades after the initial polio infection....learn more »
    In This Article
    Post-Polio Syndrome Article
    • What is post-polio syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of post-polio syndrome?
    • What causes post-polio syndrome?
    • How is post-polio syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is post-polio syndrome treated?
    • What is the role of exercise in the treatment of post-polio syndrome?
    • Can post-polio syndrome be prevented?
    • What research is being conducted on post-polio syndrome?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Breastfeeding (and Formula Feeding) It's important to know whether you will breastfeed or bottle-feed your baby prior to delivery, as the breasts' ability to produce...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breastfeeding (and Formula Feeding) Article
    • Breastfeeding facts
    • When should we decide about breastfeeding?
    • Why is the choice so important?
    • What are the disadvantages and benefits of breastfeeding?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of formula feeding?
    • Can we use both forms of feedings for our baby?
    • Is there any special preparation required for breastfeeding?
    • When can breastfeeding begin?
    • What is the proper technique for breastfeeding?
    • When should breast pumps be used?
    • Should certain foods be avoided while breastfeeding?
    • Clogged milk ducts
    • Sore nipples
    • When should one seek medical care for problems with breastfeeding?
    • Can supplements or medications increase a low milk supply?
    • Is it possible to breastfeed while pregnant?
    • Is smoking harmful when breastfeeding?
    • Do breast implants, surgeries, or reductions affect breastfeeding?
    • How should one wean a baby from breastfeeding?
  • Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing of the diameter of the renal arteries. When the renal arteries narrow, the result is...learn more »
    In This Article
    Renal Artery Stenosis Article
    • Renal artery stenosis facts
    • What are the renal arteries?
    • What is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the causes of renal artery stenosis?
    • How common is renal artery stenosis?
    • What are the symptoms of renal artery stenosis?
    • What problems does renal artery stenosis cause?
    • Who should be screened for renal artery stenosis?
    • How is renal artery stenosis diagnosed?
    • What are the common imaging tests to evaluate renal artery stenosis?
    • What functional tests are used for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis?
    • What are medical treatments for renal artery stenosis?
    • What surgical procedures are available for renal artery stenosis?
    • Which patients can benefit from surgical procedures for renal artery stenosis?
  • Fabry Disease (Symptoms and Life Expectancy) Fabry disease (Fabry's disease, alpha-galactosidase-A) is a genetic disorder with symptoms such as burning sensations in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fabry Disease (Symptoms and Life Expectancy) Article
    • Fabry disease definition and facts
    • What is Fabry disease?
    • What causes the disease; is it genetic?
    • How do you inherit Fabry disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of Fabry disease?
    • What is the prevalence or incidence of Fabry disease?
    • What types of testing diagnoses the disease?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat Fabry disease?
    • What is the treatment for Fabry disease; is there a cure?
    • What is the life expectancy for a person with Fabry disease?
    • Other names for Fabry disease
  • Adult-Onset Asthma Adult-onset asthma is asthma that is diagnosed in people over 20 years of age. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Adult-Onset Asthma Article
    • What is asthma?
    • What is adult-onset asthma?
    • What is the difference between childhood asthma and adult-onset asthma?
    • How is adult-onset asthma diagnosed?
    • Who gets asthma?
    • How is asthma classified?
    • How is asthma treated?
    • Monitoring symptoms
    • Asthma action plan
  • Teen Drug Abuse Drugs commonly abused by teens include tobacco products, marijuana, cold medications, inhalants, depressants, stimulants,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Teen Drug Abuse Article
    • Teen drug abuse facts
    • What drugs are abused by teenagers?
    • What are some adolescent drug use statistics?
    • What are the dangerous effects of drug use in teens?
    • How can parents prevent drug use?
    • What are the symptoms and warning signs of drug abuse?
    • What is drug abuse?
    • What are the causes and risk factors of teen drug use?
    • What are the symptoms of drug abuse in teens?
    • What is the treatment of drug intoxication?
    • What are treatments for drug addiction?
    • Where can a person get help for teen drug abuse?
  • Childhood ADD or ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes the following symptoms in children: excessive activity, problems...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood ADD or ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children) Article
    • ADD or ADHD in children (childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) facts
    • What is the definition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? ADD vs. ADHD
    • What are the types of ADHD (ADD)?
    • Can a child in preschool have ADHD?
    • What are risk factors and causes of ADHD in children?
    • What are childhood ADHD/ADD symptoms and signs?
    • How do health care professionals assess childhood ADHD? Are there ADD or ADHD tests? What types of doctors diagnose ADHD in children?
    • What is the treatment for childhood ADHD or ADD? What are possible side effects of ADHD medications for children?
    • What are complications and the prognosis of ADHD in children?
    • Is it possible to prevent ADHD in children?
    • What is the latest research on children with ADHD?
    • Are there support groups for children with ADHD?
    • Where can people find more information on ADHD in children?
  • Thallium Thallium is a metal that can be found in small amounts in the soil. When thallium enters the environment through coal-burning or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thallium Article
    • What is thallium?
    • What happens to thallium when it enters the environment?
    • How might I be exposed to thallium?
    • How can thallium affect my health?
    • How likely is thallium to cause cancer?
    • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to thallium?
    • Has the federal government made recommendations to protect human health?
    • Where can I get more information?
  • Insomnia (Symptoms, Causes, Remedies, and Cures) Insomnia is the perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep because of difficulty falling asleep; waking up...learn more »
    In This Article
    Insomnia (Symptoms, Causes, Remedies, and Cures) Article
    • Insomnia definition and facts
    • What is insomnia?
    • 3 classes of insomnia based on the duration of symptoms and signs
    • Signs and symptoms of insomnia
    • Who gets insomnia?
    • What causes insomnia?
    • Insomnia caused by stress and lifestyle factors
    • When should I call the doctor or other health care professional if I can't sleep?
    • Is there a test to diagnose the condition?
    • What are the treatments for insomnia; can it be cured?
    • Natural and home remedies to cure insomnia
    • Sleep hygiene
    • Stimulus control
    • Sleep restriction
    • Benzodiazepine, non-benzodiazepine, and antidepressant medications to cure insomnia
    • Melatonin, Rozerem, and Belsomra for problems sleeping
    • Can insomnia be cured?
  • Lung Anatomy (Structure and Function) The lungs are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and the blood....learn more »
    In This Article
    Lung Anatomy (Structure and Function) Article
    • Human lung anatomy definition and facts
    • What are the lungs?
    • What is carbon dioxide poisoning? What are the symptoms?
    • What is the structure of the respiratory system?
    • Inhalation and exhalation
    • How does gas exchange occur?
    • What are other important events during the breathing cycle?
  • Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter is a problem with the atria of the heart. In atrial flutter the atria of the heart rapidly and repeatedly beat...learn more »
    In This Article
    Atrial Flutter Article
    • Atrial flutter definition and facts
    • What is atrial flutter (ECG)?
    • What does atrial flutter feel like (symptoms)?
    • Is atrial flutter dangerous?
    • How long does atrial flutter last?
    • Atrial flutter vs. atrial fibrillation (AFib)
    • What causes atrial flutter?
    • Who gets atrial flutter (risks)?
    • Are atrial flutter, stroke, and heart attack the same?
    • How do the ECG wave strip patterns of atrial flutter differ from a normal ECG?
    • Medications to treat and manage atrial flutter
    • What procedures treat and manage atrial flutter?
    • Which specialties of doctors treat atrial flutter?
    • How can atrial flutter be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis and life expectancy for a person with atrial flutter?
  • Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke can cause illness and disease in nonsmokers. Some of these conditions include lung cancer, heart disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Secondhand Smoke Article
    • Secondhand smoke facts
    • What is secondhand smoke?
    • What causes secondhand smoke?
    • What are the health risks of secondhand smoke?
    • Lung cancer and secondhand smoke
    • Cardiovascular disease and secondhand smoke
    • Other lung diseases and secondhand smoke
    • Secondhand smoke and other effects on children
    • Secondhand smoke and the effects on pregnant women
    • Secondhand smoke and the possible link to breast cancer
    • Is there a safe level of secondhand smoke?
    • What can be done about secondhand smoke exposure?
    • What is thirdhand smoke?
  • Smoker's Lung: Pathology Photo Essay Smoker's lung photo essay is a collection of pictures and microscopic slides of lung disease caused by cigarette smoking....learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoker's Lung: Pathology Photo Essay Article
    • Smoker's lung introduction
    • What is the structure of the normal lung?
    • What processes determine normal function of the lung?
    • What are the abnormalities (diseases) in smoker's lung?
    • What happens to the lung in emphysema?
    • How does emphysema come about?
    • Why does smoker's lung look black?
    • What happens to the airways in chronic bronchitis?
    • Are smokers with COPD predisposed to developing pneumonia?
    • What about lung cancer in smokers?
    • Are any of the pulmonary consequences of smoking reversible?
    • From what do smokers die?
  • Why Am I So Bloated? Bloating is a feeling that your abdomen is distended or larger than normal, but it does not necessarily mean that it is. Gas...learn more »
    In This Article
    Why Am I So Bloated? Article
    • What is bloating? What does bloating "feeling bloated" mean?
    • What are common causes of "stomach" bloating?
    • Foods that cause a bloated stomach
    • Natural and home remedies for relief of bloating and gas
    • OTC products for relief of common causes of stomach bloating and gas
    • What are the more serious causes of stomach or belly bloating?
    • When should I call a doctor if I am very bloated and have belly pain?
  • Aortic Dissection Aortic dissection is a small tear in the large blood vessel that leads from the heart and supplies blood to the body. There are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Aortic Dissection Article
    • Aortic dissection facts
    • Introduction to aortic dissection
    • What are the causes of aortic dissection?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of aortic dissection?
    • How is aortic dissection diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for aortic dissection?
    • What is the prognosis for aortic dissection?
    • Can aortic dissection be prevented?
  • Stroke Prevention Stroke is the third leading killer in the United States. Some of the warning signs of stroke include sudden confusion, trouble...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stroke Prevention Article
    • Introduction
    • What is a Stroke?
    • What are Warning Signs of a Stroke?
    • What are Risk Factors for a Stroke?
    • What Are the Treatable Risk Factors?
    • Do You Know Your Stroke Risk?
  • Porphyria Porphyria is a group of disorders that affect the nervous system, skin, or both. Porphyria is often an inherited condition that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Porphyria Article
    • Porphyria facts*
    • What is porphyria?
    • What are the types of porphyria?
    • What causes porphyria?
    • What are the symptoms of porphyria?
    • How is porphyria diagnosed?
    • How is porphyria treated?
  • Heart Attack Treatment A heart attack involves damage or death of part of the heart muscle due to a blood clot. The aim of heart attack treatment is to...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Treatment Article
    • What is a heart attack?
    • How is a heart attack treated?
    • Antiplatelet agents
    • Aspirin
    • Thienopyridines
    • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
    • Anticoagulants
    • Clot-dissolving drugs
    • Coronary angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • Coronary artery stents
    • Nitrates
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
    • Beta blockers
    • Oxygen
    • Coronary artery bypass
    • What can a patient expect during recovery from a heart attack?
    • How can a second heart attack be prevented?
  • Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay A heart attack is a layperson's term for a sudden blockage of a coronary artery. This photo essay includes graphics, pictures,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Pathology: Photo Essay Article
    • What is a Heart Attack?
    • What are the structures and functions of a normal coronary artery?
    • What happens to the coronary artery in atherosclerosis?
    • Who gets coronary artery plaques and what happens to the plaques?
    • What happens to the heart muscle after a person survives a Heart Attack?
    • Can a person have more than one heart attack?
  • Sick Building Syndrome Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or also referred to as sick building syndrome or environmental illness is the name given by...learn more »
    In This Article
    Sick Building Syndrome Article
    • Sick building syndrome facts
    • What is sick building syndrome?
    • Why is sick building syndrome controversial?
    • What types of specialists treat sick building syndrome?
    • What causes sick building syndrome?
    • What are risk factors for sick building syndrome?
    • What are sick building syndrome symptoms and signs?
    • How is sick building syndrome diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for sick building syndrome?
    • What are complications of sick building syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis of sick building syndrome?
    • Is there a way to prevent sick building syndrome?
  • Dysthymia Dysthymia is a less severe form of chronic depression. Symptoms and signs include insomnia, suicidal thoughts, guilt, empty...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dysthymia Article
    • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) facts
    • What is persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)?
    • What are causes and risk factors for persistent depressive disorder?
    • What are persistent depressive disorder symptoms and signs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose persistent depressive disorder? What types of doctors treat persistent depressive disorder?
    • What is the treatment for persistent depressive disorder? Are there any home remedies for persistent depressive disorder?
    • What is the prognosis of persistent depressive disorder?
    • Is it possible to prevent persistent depressive disorder?
    • Are there support groups for people with persistent depressive disorder?
  • Marijuana Get the latest marijuana statistics and information. Learn its effects and how this drug, also known as pot, affects the brain....learn more »
    In This Article
    Marijuana Article
    • Marijuana facts
    • What is marijuana, and how is it abused?
    • What is medical marijuana? How is medical marijuana prescribed?
    • What are other names for marijuana?
    • What is the history and different types of marijuana?
    • Is marijuana addictive?
    • What are the psychological and social effects of abusing marijuana?
    • What are the physical effects of abusing marijuana?
    • What are the treatments for marijuana abuse and addiction?
    • Can marijuana abuse and addiction be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis of marijuana abuse and addiction?
    • Where can people find more information about marijuana abuse and addiction?
  • Asthma Medications There are two types of asthma medications: long-term control with anti-inflammatory drugs and quick relief from bronchodilators....learn more »
    In This Article
    Asthma Medications Article
    • Who is a candidate for asthma medication?
    • What are controller medications for asthma (long-term control)?
    • What are rescue medications for asthma (short-term control)?
    • What are the different forms of medications (pills, inhalers, nebulizers) to treat asthma?
    • What are the specific controller medications for asthma?
    • What are over-the-counter (OTC) asthma medications?
    • What are asthma medication guidelines?
    • What are the potential risks and side effects of drugs used to treat asthma?
    • What are the various kinds of asthma medications for toddlers and children?
    • What kinds of asthma medications are safe to use in pregnancy?
  • Asthma in Children Asthma in children manifests with symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. Rates of asthma in children are increasing. Asthma in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Asthma in Children Article
    • What is asthma in children?
    • How common is asthma in children?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of asthma in children?
    • How is asthma in children diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for asthma in children?
    • What is the prognosis for asthma in children?
    • Can asthma in children be prevented?
  • Cystic Acne Cystic acne is distinguised by painful nodules on the chest, face, neck, and back. This formo of acne is known to scar. Treatment...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cystic Acne Article
    • What is cystic acne?
    • What are causes and risk factors for cystic acne?
    • What are cystic acne symptoms and signs?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose cystic acne?
    • Are there home remedies for cystic acne?
    • What are treatments and medications for cystic acne?
    • What are possible complications of cystic acne?
    • What is the prognosis of cystic acne?
    • Is it possible to prevent cystic acne?
  • Alcohol and Teens Alcohol is the most frequently used drug by American teenagers. Teens that drink are more likely to drive under the influence,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Alcohol and Teens Article
    • Alcohol and teens facts
    • How much alcohol do teens use?
    • What are the dangerous effects of alcohol use in teens?
    • How can parents prevent alcohol use?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of alcohol intoxication?
    • What is alcoholism?
    • What are the causes and risk factors of teen alcoholism?
    • What are the symptoms of alcohol abuse in teens?
    • What is the treatment for alcohol intoxication?
    • What is alcohol poisoning?
    • What is the treatment for alcoholism?
    • What is the prognosis for alcoholism?
    • How can a teen get help for an alcohol problem?
  • Children's Health Children's health is focused on the well-being of children from conception through adolescence. There are many aspects of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Children's Health Article
    • Introduction to children's health
    • Children's growth and development
    • Children's illnesses
    • Children's injuries
    • Children's behavior
    • Children's mental illness
    • Family health and children
    • Community health and children
    • Health care for children
  • Heart Attacks in Women Heart disease, particularly coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart attacks. Women are more likely to die from a...learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attacks in Women Article
    • One woman's heart attack story
    • What is heart disease?
    • Do women need to worry about heart disease?
    • Do women of color need to worry about heart disease?
    • What can I do to prevent heart disease?
    • What does high blood pressure have to do with heart disease?
    • How can I lower my blood pressure?
    • What does high cholesterol have to do with heart disease?
    • What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean?
    • How can I lower my cholesterol?
    • How do I know if I have heart disease?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a heart attack?
    • One of my family members had a heart attack. Does that mean I'll have one too?
    • Sometimes my heart beats really fast and other times it feels like my heart skips a beat. Am I having a heart attack?
    • Should I take a daily aspirin to prevent heart attack?
    • Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does using the birth control patch increase my risk for heart disease?
    • Does menopausal hormone therapy (HT, HRT, ET) increase a woman's risk for heart disease?
    • For more information on heart disease in women
  • Is Gingivitis Contagious? Gingivitis is inflammation of the gums. Poor dental hygiene, stress, smoking, some medications, and a poor diet can cause...learn more »
    In This Article
    Is Gingivitis Contagious? Article
    • What is gingivitis (gum disease or periodontal disease)?
    • Is gingivitis contagious?
    • How does gingivitis spread?
    • How will one know if he or she has gingivitis?
    • How will someone know when he or she no longer has gingivitis?
    • When should someone seek medical care for gingivitis?
  • Menstrual Cramps and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Medication Guide Menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms include abdominal cramping, bloating, a feeling of fullness, abdominal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Menstrual Cramps and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Medication Guide Article
    • Menstrual cramps and PMS medication facts
    • What are menstrual cramps?
    • What is the treatment for common menstrual cramps (primary dysmenorrhea)?
    • What is premenstrual syndrome (PMS)?
    • What treatments are available for PMS?
    • What medications are used to treat PMS?
    • What are some guidelines for the safe use of OTC products for menstrual cramps and PMS?
  • Radon (A Citizen's Guide to Radon) Radon is a radioactive gas that has been confirmed to cause cancers. About 21,000 individuals die each year due to radon...learn more »
    In This Article
    Radon (A Citizen's Guide to Radon) Article
    • Radon Facts*
    • EPA Recommendations for Radon
    • Overview About Radon
    • How Does Radon Get Into Your Home?
    • How to Test Your Home for Radon
    • Short-term Testing for Radon
    • Long-term Testing for Radon
    • How to Use a Radon Test Kit
    • What Your Test Results Mean
    • Radon and Home Sales
    • Radon in Water
    • How to Lower the Radon Levels in Your Home
    • The Risk of Living With Radon
    • Radon Risk Charts
    • Radon Myths
    • For Further Information
  • Noise Induced Hearing Loss and Its Prevention Noise-induced hearing loss may be an acoustic trauma, which causes temporary hearing loss, or it may be permanent due to an acute...learn more »
    In This Article
    Noise Induced Hearing Loss and Its Prevention Article
    • What is the importance of noise-induced hearing loss?
    • What are acoustic trauma and noise-induced hearing loss?
    • How can a person tell if a noisy situation is dangerous to their hearing?
    • How loud can a sound get before it affects hearing?
    • Do the duration and closeness of exposure to loud noise relate to hearing damage?
    • What factors increase a person's susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss?
    • How else can noise affect a person?
    • What are the regulations regarding on-the-job exposure to noise?
    • How effective are hearing protection devices?
    • What are the common problems with hearing protectors?
    • Do hearing protectors prevent a person from communicating with others?
    • How is hearing loss identified?
    • What can be done to treat hearing loss?
  • Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip Cleft palate and cleft lip are facial and oral defects that occur early in pregnancy. A cleft lip is a split of the two sides of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip Article
    • Cleft lip and cleft palate facts
    • What is a cleft lip? What is a cleft palate?
    • How often do these birth effects occur?
    • What are the causes and risk factors for developing a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • How do physicians diagnose a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • What are complications of a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • What is the treatment for a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • What is the prognosis for a cleft lip and cleft palate?
    • Is it possible to prevent a cleft lip or cleft palate?
  • Heart Attack Prevention Heart disease and heart attacks can be prevented by leading a healthy lifestyle with diet, exercise, and stress management....learn more »
    In This Article
    Heart Attack Prevention Article
    • Heart attack prevention definition and facts
    • What is a heart attack?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of a heart attack in men and women?
    • Are signs and symptoms of a heart attack different in women?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of heart disease (cardiovascular disease)?
    • What can I do to prevent heart disease or a heart attack?
    • What kinds of diets are recommended to prevent heart disease and heart attacks?
    • What tips and lifestyle changes can be made to prevent heart disease and heart attacks?
    • Will exercise reduce my risk of having heart disease and a heart attack?
    • What diseases or conditions put a person at a higher risk for heart disease or a heart attack?
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Consuming alcohol during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome, a group of conditions associated with mental, growth, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Article
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) facts
    • What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What causes fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What are risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What are symptoms and signs of fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • How do physicians diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What is the treatment for fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What are the complications and long-term effects of fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis of fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Is it possible to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • Is it safe to consume alcohol and breastfeed?
    • Where can people find more information about fetal alcohol syndrome?
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer vs Small Cell Lung Cancer Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) consist of large cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. Small cell...learn more »
    In This Article
    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer vs Small Cell Lung Cancer Article
    • What is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)?
    • What is small cell lung cancer (SCLC)?
    • NSCLC vs. SCLC similarities and differences
    • What are causes and risk factors for non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer?
    • Is it possible to have non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer at the same time?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer?
    • What tests do health care professionals use to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer?
    • What are the stages of non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer?
    • What are treatments and medications for non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer?
    • What is the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer?
    • Is it possible to prevent non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer?
  • Nicotine Nicotine is delivered to the brain through smoking, chewing, or sniffing tobacco. Nicotine is an addictive agent. Common names...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nicotine Article
    • What is tobacco addiction?
    • Is nicotine addictive?
    • Is nicotine the only harmful part of tobacco?
    • How is tobacco used?
    • What are the common street names for cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and hookah smoking?
    • How many teens smoke or use tobacco products?
    • How does tobacco deliver its effects?
    • What happens when someone uses tobacco for long periods of time?
    • What are other adverse health effects of smoking and tobacco abuse?
    • Smoking and pregnancy: What are the risks?
    • How is tobacco addiction treated?
    • What if a person wants to quit smoking or using tobacco?
  • How to Lower Your Cholesterol Cholesterol is naturally produced by the body, and is a building block for cell membranes and hormones. Low-density lipoprotein...learn more »
    In This Article
    How to Lower Your Cholesterol Article
    • Cholesterol definition and cholesterol lowering facts
    • What is cholesterol?
    • What are "normal" cholesterol blood levels?
    • HDL cholesterol vs. LDL cholesterol
    • What are LDL/HDL and total/HDL ratios?
    • How can levels of HDL cholesterol be increased?
    • How can high LDL cholesterol levels be lowered?
    • 2013 ACC/AHA Cholesterol Guidelines to prevent heart attack and stroke
    • What foods should be included in a low cholesterol diet?
    • What medications lower cholesterol, lipids, and triglycerides?
    • What are triglycerides and VLDL?
    • Do high triglyceride levels cause atherosclerosis?
    • Does lowering LDL cholesterol prevent heart attacks and strokes?
    • What causes elevated triglyceride levels?
    • How can elevated blood triglyceride levels be treated?
    • Is lowering LDL cholesterol enough?
  • COPD vs. Emphysema (Differences Similarities) COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is the term doctors and other health care professionals use to describe a group of...learn more »
    In This Article
    COPD vs. Emphysema (Differences Similarities) Article
    • What is COPD? What is emphysema?
    • COPD vs. asthma symptoms and signs
    • COPD vs. asthma differences between symptoms
    • COPD vs. emphysema causes
    • What things worsen symptoms?
    • What are the stages of COPD?
    • What are the stages of emphysema?
    • How do doctors diagnose COPD vs. emphysema?
    • COPD vs. emphysema treatments
    • Will lifestyle changes slow the progression of COPD or emphysema?
    • Is there a cure for COPD or emphysema?
    • What is the life expectancy for COPD vs. emphysema? Are they fatal?
  • e-Cigarettes e-cigarettes are replaceable or refillable cartridges or containers that are smoke-able and hold a liquid that contains solvents,...learn more »
    In This Article
    e-Cigarettes Article
    • What are e-cigarettes (e cigarettes)?
    • Do e-cigarettes contain nicotine?
    • Are e-cigarettes safe to use, and what are the side effects?
    • Do e-cigarettes expel secondhand smoke?
    • Do e-cigarettes help with smoking cessation?
    • Are e-cigarettes addictive?
    • How many people use e-cigarettes?
  • Wrinkles Wrinkles, whether they be fine line or deep furrows, typically appear on areas of the body that receive a high amount of exposure...learn more »
    In This Article
    Wrinkles Article
    • Wrinkles facts
    • Introduction to wrinkles
    • What factors promote wrinkles?
    • What treatments and procedures are available for wrinkles?
  • Smoking and Heart Disease Smoking increases the risk of heart disease in women and men. Nicotine in cigarettes decrease oxygen to the heart, increases...learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking and Heart Disease Article
    • Smoking and heart disease introduction
    • How does smoking increase heart disease risk?
    • How can quitting smoking be helpful?
    • How to quit smoking
    • What should I do first to stop smoking?
    • How can I avoid smoking again?
  • Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC) Taking prescription medications or over-the-counter drugs or supplements should be discussed with your doctor. There are some...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy and Drugs (Prescription and OTC) Article
    • Is it safe to use medicine while I am pregnant?
    • How should I decide whether to use a medicine while I am pregnant?
    • Where do doctors and nurses find out about using medicines during pregnancy?
    • How do prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine labels help my doctor choose the right medicine for me when I am pregnant?
    • What if I'm thinking about getting pregnant?
    • Is it safe to use medicine while I am trying to become pregnant?
    • What if I get sick and need to use medicine while I am pregnant?
    • I have a health problem. Should I stop using my medicine while I am pregnant?
    • Are vitamins safe for me while I am pregnant?
    • Are herbal remedies or natural products safe for me when I am pregnant?
    • In the future, will there be better ways to know if medicines are safe to use during pregnancy?
    • For more information
  • Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Vitamins and exercise can lower your risk for heart attack and heart disease. Folic acid, vitamins, and homocysteine levels are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vitamins & Exercise: Heart Attack Prevention Series Article
    • Homocysteine, folic acid, and B vitamins
    • What about antioxidants for heart attack prevention?
    • How about exercise for heart attack prevention?
    • What about smoking cessation for heart attack prevention?
    • Recommendations to prevent heart attacks
  • Colon Cancer Prevention Colo-rectal cancer is both curable and preventable if it is detected early and completely removed before the cancerous cells...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Cancer Prevention Article
    • Colon cancer prevention facts
    • Introduction to colon cancer prevention
    • When should colon cancer screening begin?
    • What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer?
    • What measures to prevent colorectal cancer have proven effectiveness and long term safety?
    • What measures to prevent colorectal cancer probably are effective but may have long term adverse side effects?
    • What measures to prevent colorectal cancer probably are effective and safe?
    • What prevention measures have been found to be ineffective?
    • What about genetic testing for colon cancer?
    • Who should consider genetic counseling and testing?
    • Why is genetic counseling and testing important in hereditary colon cancer syndromes?
    • What can be done now to prevent colorectal cancer?
  • How to Stop Snoring Snoring is caused by the vibrations of the soft tissues at the back of the nose and throat while a person sleeps. There are many...learn more »
    In This Article
    How to Stop Snoring Article
    • What is snoring?
    • What are common causes of snoring?
    • Is snoring a symptom of another disease or condition?
    • How can I get my partner to stop snoring?
    • What kinds of doctors treat snoring?
    • How is the cause of snoring diagnosed?
    • What natural home remedies help a person stop snoring?
    • What anti-snoring aids and devices help stop snoring?
    • What foods or drinks may help a person stop snoring?
    • What medical treatments help a person to quit snoring?
    • Can snoring be prevented?
  • Smoking During Pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth, low birth weight or premature birth, and more....learn more »
    In This Article
    Smoking During Pregnancy Article
    • Smoking during pregnancy facts
    • How does smoking affect a pregnant woman and her baby?
    • Is any amount of smoking safe in pregnancy?
    • What are the risks of secondhand smoke in pregnancy?
    • Can nicotine replacement products be used during pregnancy to quit smoking?
  • Occupational Asthma Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by exposure to a substance in the workplace. Symptoms and signs include wheezing,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Occupational Asthma Article
    • Occupational asthma facts
    • What is occupational asthma?
    • What causes occupational asthma?
    • What are risk factors for occupational asthma?
    • What are symptoms and signs of occupational asthma?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose occupational asthma?
    • What is the treatment for occupational asthma?
    • What are complications of occupational asthma?
    • Is it possible to prevent occupational asthma?
    • Where can a person find more information about occupational asthma?
  • Disease Prevention in Women Disease prevention in women includes screening tests that are a basic part of prevention medicine. All screening tests are...learn more »
    In This Article
    Disease Prevention in Women Article
    • Disease prevention in women overview
    • Osteoporosis
    • Breast cancer
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Cervical cancer
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia)
    • Type II diabetes mellitus
    • Cancer of colon and rectum / polyps of colon and rectum
    • Bladder cancer
    • Glaucoma
    • Melanoma and other skin cancers
  • Cancer Prevention Certain behavioral, lifestyle, and environmental factors contribute to cancer. Cancer prevention involves modifying these factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Prevention Article
    • What is cancer prevention?
    • Carcinogenesis
    • Cancer Risk factors
    • Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer
    • Factors That May Affect the Risk of Cancer
    • Interventions that are known to lower cancer risk
    • Interventions that are not known to lower cancer risk
  • Weight Control and Smoking Cessation One concern smokers have when considering quitting smoking is weight gain. Not everyone will gain weight when they stop smoking....learn more »
    In This Article
    Weight Control and Smoking Cessation Article
    • Weight control and smoking cessation introduction
    • Will I gain weight if I stop smoking?
    • What causes weight gain after quitting?
    • Can I avoid weight gain?
    • Accept yourself
    • Get regular, moderate-intensity physical activity
    • Limit snacking and alcohol
    • Consider using medication to help you quit
    • Consider getting professional advice about weight control
    • Will weight gain hurt my health?
  • Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial cancer, or uterine cancer, affects the endometrium of the uterus. It's the most common invasive cancer of the female...learn more »
    In This Article
    Endometrial Cancer Prevention Article
    • What is cancer prevention?
    • What is endometrial cancer (uterine cancer)?
    • What are risk factors for endometrial cancer (uterine cancer)?
  • Juvenile Bone Health Setting a good example for your children when it comes to diet and exercise will help them to make healthy decisions about...learn more »
    In This Article
    Juvenile Bone Health Article
    • Why Is Childhood Such an Important Time for Bone Development?
    • What Is Osteoporosis? Isn't It Something Old People Get?
    • How Can I Help Keep My Kids' Bones Healthy?
    • How Can I Persuade My Daughter to Drink Milk Instead of Diet Soda? She Thinks Milk Will Make Her Fat.
    • But My Kids Don't Like Milk.
    • My Teenage Son Loves Milk, But It Seems to Upset His Stomach. Could He Have Lactose Intolerance?
    • My Daughter Is Constantly Dieting. Should I Be Concerned?
    • Should I Give My Kids Calcium Supplements?
    • How Does Physical Activity Help My Kids' Bones?
    • Is It Possible to Get Too Much Exercise?
    • What Else Can My Kids Do Besides Eating Calcium-Rich Foods and Getting Plenty of Weight-Bearing Exercise to Keep Their Bones Healthy?
    • My Son Has Asthma and Takes a Steroid Medication to Control It. His Doctor Said This Might Affect His Bones. Is There Anything We Can Do About This?
    • My 8-Year-Old Son Is a Daredevil and Has Already Broken Several Bones. Could He Have a Problem Like Osteoporosis at This Young Age?
    • How Can I Get Through to My Kids? They Sure Don't Think About Their Bones.
    • Where Can I Go for More Information?