Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Sinus infections are caused by infections from a pathogenic microorganism
(virus, bacterium, or fungus), which grows within a sinus and causes
intermittent blockage of the sinus ostium.
Most people do not transmit sinus infections; most clinicians agree that except for rare instances, sinus infections are
not contagious but arise from mainly viruses and bacteria that, by chance, contaminate a person who sinuses support their proliferation because of minor, and rarely, major abnormalities in the person's sinus tissue (for example, swelling, inflammation, abnormal mucus production, and rarely, facial or nasal trauma).
Sinusitis is inflammation of the air cavities within the passages of the
nose. Sinusitis can be caused by infection, but also can be caused by allergies
and chemical or particulate irritation of the sinuses.
Sinusitis may be classified in several ways such as acute sinus infection,
subacute sinus infection, chronic sinus infection, infected sinusitis, and
Sinus infection symptoms include
sinus headache, facial tenderness,
pressure or pain in the sinuses, fever, cloudy discolored drainage, and feeling
of nasal stuffiness, sore throat, and
Bacterial infection of the sinuses is suspected when facial pain, pus-like
nasal discharge, and symptoms that persists for longer than a week and are not
responding to over-the-counter nasal medications.
Sinus infection is generally diagnosed based on patient history and
physical examination by a health care practitioner.
Bacterial sinusitis is usually treated with antibiotic therapy.
Early treatment of allergic sinusitis may prevent secondary bacterial sinus
Home remedies for sinus infections include OTC medications such as
decongestants, and mucolytics. Nasal irrigation can be accomplished with a Neti-pot
or rinse kit (nasal bidet).
Rare fungal infections of the sinuses (for example, zygomycosis) constitute
a medical emergency.
Complications of a sinus infection that may develop are meningitis, brain
abscess, osteomyelitis, and orbital cellulitis.
There are no fungal vaccines available to prevent fungal sinus infections.
Reviewed by William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR on 1/31/2013
Commonly sinus infection signs and symptoms are headache, facial tenderness, pressure or pain, and fever. However, as few as 25% of patients may have fever associated with acute sinus infection. Other common symptoms include:
cloudy, discolored nasal drainage,
a feeling of nasal stuffiness,
sore throat, and
Some people notice an increased sensitivity or headache when they lean forward because of the additional pressure placed on the sinuses. Others may experience tooth or ear pain, fatigue, or bad breath. Nasal drainage is usually clear or whitish-colored in people with noninfectious sinusitis.
The purpose of the nose is to warm, clean, and humidify the air you breathe
as well as help you to smell and taste. A normal person will produce about two
quarts of fluid each day (mucus), which aids"...