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- Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) facts
- What is severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)?
- What causes SARS? How is SARS transmitted?
- Is SARS contagious? How long is the contagious period for SARS?
- What is the incubation period for SARS?
- What are risk factors for SARS?
- What are SARS symptoms and signs?
- What kind of specialists treat SARS?
- How do health-care professionals diagnose SARS?
- What is the treatment for SARS?
- What is the prognosis of SARS?
- Is it possible to prevent SARS?
- Is there a SARS vaccine? What research is being done on SARS?
- Where can people get more information about SARS?
What causes SARS? How is SARS transmitted?
SARS is caused by a virus referred to as "SARS-CoV" from the coronavirus genus; SARS-CoV means severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus. Many coronaviruses infect animals and humans, and the common cold is caused by some coronaviruses and several other viruses. SARS-CoV virus had never been identified before 2002. This was not entirely surprising because there are many types of coronaviruses, and they are known to mutate easily.
SARS-CoV likely originated in wild bats and then spread to palm civets or similar mammals. The virus then mutated and adapted itself in these animals until it eventually infected humans. There was ample opportunity for the virus to come into contact with humans. Bats serve as a food source in parts of Asia, and their feces are sometimes used in folk medicines. Civets are cat-like mammals that live in the tropics of Africa and Asia and produce musk from their scent glands, which is used in perfumes. Civets are also hunted for meat in some parts of the world. These animals could easily transmit the virus to humans.
SARS-CoV is spread from person to person through respiratory secretions. SARS often affected people caring for a sick individual and spread readily through health-care facilities until infection-control measures were established. SARS-CoV was isolated from many hospital surface areas, including elevator buttons, likely contributing to the spread of the disease among healthcare workers. During the outbreak, one in about every 20 infected people was a health-care worker who cared for a patient with SARS; nearly 2,000 health-care workers became ill.
Is SARS contagious? How long is the contagious period for SARS?
SARS is contagious from person to person by droplets in respiratory secretions, such as during coughing or sneezing, much like the common cold. In addition, droplets on surfaces can be touched and rubbed into eyes, nose, or mouth membranes. Relatively close contact is required, such as being within 3 feet of a symptomatic person while living with them, sleeping in the same room, sharing household items with them, or providing medical care for them.
The contagious period is generally from the time symptoms start (end of the incubation period) and is greatest during the second week of symptoms. People with SARS should avoid leaving home until 10 days after symptoms end due to possible contagiousness.