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What are the different types of bone cancer?
There are several different types of bone cancer, and they are often treated differently. Knowing the precise type of bone cancer is essential for developing an optimal treatment plan. Some of the most common types of bone cancer are as follows.
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Osteosarcoma occurs most commonly in older children, teenagers, and young adults (10-19 years of age), and it is more common in males. Osteosarcoma in young people tends to develop at the ends of long bones in areas of active bone growth, often around the knee, either at the end of the thighbone (femur) or the shinbone (tibia) near the knee. The next most common location for bone cancer is in the bone of the arm (humerus). Nevertheless, it is possible for an osteosarcoma to develop in any bone. Depending on the appearance of the tumor cells under the microscope, there are also several different subtypes of osteosarcoma.
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common bone cancer. It arises from cartilage cells that are attached to or cover bone. It is more common in people older than 40 years of age, and less than 5% of these cancers occur in people under 20 years of age. It may either grow rapidly and aggressively or grow slowly. Chondrosarcoma is most commonly found in the bones of the hips and pelvis.
Ewing sarcoma, sometimes referred to as the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs), is an aggressive form of bone cancer that is most common in children 4-15 years of age. It can occur either in the bones or in the soft tissues and is believed to arise from primitive nerve tissue. ESFTs are more common in males than in females. The most common location for Ewing sarcoma is the middle portion of the long bones of the arms and legs.
Pleomorphic sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) of bone
Pleomorphic sarcoma is a cancer formerly referred to as malignant fibrous histiocytoma or MFH. This term is still used frequently. Pleomorphic sarcomas are typically not cancers of bone but of soft tissues. However, they may arise in the bone in up to 5% of cases. Pleomorphic sarcomas typically occur in adults and can be found anywhere in the body.
Fibrosarcoma is an uncommon type of bone cancer. It is most commonly arises behind the knee in adults.
Chordoma is a very rare cancer usually seen in people over 30 years of age. It is most commonly located in either the lower or upper ends of the spinal column.