Hernia - Types

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What are the different types of abdominal hernias?

Hernias of the abdominal and pelvic floor

Inguinal hernias are the most common of the abdominal hernias. The inguinal canal is the opening that allows the spermatic cord and testicle to descend from within the abdomen where they develop in a fetus into the scrotum. After the testicle descends, the opening is supposed to close tightly but sometimes the muscles that attach to the pelvis leave a weak area. In women, therefore, inguinal hernias are less likely to occur because there is no need for a permanent opening in the inguinal canal.

A femoral hernia may occur through the opening in the floor of the abdomen where the femoral artery and vein pass through to the leg. Because of their wider bone structure, femoral hernias tend to occur more frequently in women.

Obturator hernias are the least common hernia of the pelvic floor. These are mostly found in women who have had multiple pregnancies or who have lost significant weight. The hernia occurs through the obturator canal, another connection of the abdominal cavity to the leg, and contains the obturator artery, vein, and nerve.

Hernias of the anterior abdominal wall

The abdominal wall is made up of muscles that mirror each other from right and left. These include the rectus abdominus as well as the internal obliques, the external obliques, and the transversalis. Diastasis recti is not a true hernia but rather a weakening of the membrane where the two rectus abdominus muscles from the right and left come together.

When epigastric hernias occur in infants, they occur because of a weakness in the midline of the abdominal wall where the two rectus muscles join together between the breastbone and belly button. Sometimes this weakness does not become evident until later in adult life as it becomes a bulge in the upper abdomen.

The belly button, or umbilicus, is where the umbilical cord attached the fetus to mother allowing blood circulation to the fetus. Umbilical hernias cause abnormal bulging in the belly button and are very common in newborns and often do not need treatment unless complications occur. Some umbilical hernias enlarge and may require repair.

Spigelian hernias occur on the outside edges of the rectus abdominus muscle and are rare. Incisional hernias occur as a complication of abdominal surgery, where the abdominal muscles are cut to allow the surgeon to enter the abdominal cavity to operate. Although the muscle is usually repaired, it becomes a relative area of weakness, potentially allowing abdominal organs to herniate through the incision.

Hernias of the diaphragm

Hiatal hernias occur when part of the stomach slides through the opening in the diaphragm where the esophagus passes from the chest into the abdomen. A sliding hiatal hernia is the most common type and occurs when the lower esophagus and portions of the stomach slide through the diaphragm into the chest. Paraesophageal hernias occur when only the stomach herniates into the chest alongside the esophagus. This can lead to serious complications of obstruction or the stomach twisting upon itself (volvulus).

Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias may occur due to major injury where blunt trauma weakens or tears the diaphragm muscle allowing immediate or delayed herniation of abdominal organs into the chest cavity. This may also occur after penetrating trauma from a stab or gunshot wound.

Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are rare and are caused by failure of the diaphragm to completely form and close during fetal development. This can lead to failure of the lungs to fully develop and decreased lung function if abdominal organs migrate into the chest. The most common type is a Bochdalek hernia at the side edge of the diaphragm. Morgagni hernias are rare and are a failure of the front of the diaphragm.

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See what others are saying

Comment from: marmie, 75 or over Female (Patient) Published: May 02

I have a large hernia from an incision for two colon resections in two years. The CT scan shows some of my liver is also out, I guess because of a severe cough 2 months ago. My last surgery six months ago popped open and took 3 months to finally close. The inguinal hernia is in that area.

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