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What causes kidney stones?
It isn't exactly clear what causes kidney stones to form in some people and not others. Usually it requires concentrated urine that allows minerals like calcium to come in close contact with each other. Changes in the acid-base balance (pH) of the urine, how concentrated it is, and the concentration of minerals and chemicals within the urine are all factors that can begin the formation of a stone.
Crystals can form the beginning of the stone and eventually grow large enough to cause problems. Concentrated urine often occurs during an episode of dehydration, setting the stage for the beginning of stone formation. The consequences of that stone, when it is large enough to cause an obstruction, may occur weeks, months, or years later.