Leishmaniasis - Treatment

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What is the treatment for leishmaniasis?

Visceral leishmaniasis is treated with an intravenous medication called liposomal amphotericin B, which is the only drug approved in the U.S. for this purpose. Amphotericin is generally safe but may have side effects, including renal insufficiency. In developing countries where the drug is not available, an older agent called pentavalent antimony (SbV) may be used intravenously or intramuscularly. More recently, paromomycin (Humatin) and miltefosine (Miltex) have been used, but neither is available in the United States.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is not always treated. Cases with few lesions that are small and appear to be healing are sometimes simply monitored. More significant disease is treated with medications, but treatment recommendations vary with where the disease was acquired and the species of Leishmania (if known). Possible treatments for cases arriving in the U.S. include oral ketoconazole (Nizoral, Extina, Xolegel, Kuric), intravenous pentamidine, or liposomal amphotericin B. An antimonite called stibogluconate (Pentostam) is available under an investigational new drug protocol through the CDC. Because treatment must be individualized according to the country of acquisition and the species, consultation with public-health officials, infectious-disease consultants, and the CDC is strongly recommended. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is less common, and there is no clear consensus on treatment; as such, consultation with the CDC and an infectious-diseases consultant is again recommended.

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Comment from: Army Girl, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: August 14

I received "thermal" treatment. A metal tool was heated and the area was burned.

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