What was the cause of a hantavirus infection in you or someone you know?
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What causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
As stated above, the cause of HPS is infection of the patient by hantavirus. Currently, about 14 subtypes of hantaviruses have been identified. Many subtypes have been named (for example, Sin Nombre, Black Creek hantavirus, and New York hantavirus); some investigators simply lump them under the term of "New World hantaviruses." The Sin Nombre subtype has caused the majority of current HPS disease. The virus apparently damages cells that compose blood vessel capillaries, causing them to leak fluids. This fluid leak, if it is profound in the lungs, causes the pulmonary syndrome that can lead to death.
Hantaviruses live their lifecycle in rodents but apparently do no harm; the viruses multiply and are shed in the rodent's urine, feces, and saliva. A recent study in California suggested about 15% of all deer mice examined tested positive for hantavirus. Although the deer mouse has been the source of most HPS infections, many other rodents may carry a different hantavirus subtype virus (for example, the white-footed mouse, the cotton rat, and the rice rat).