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The treatment for acute compartment syndrome is surgery (fasciotomy). The surgeon (either an orthopedic or general surgeon) will perform a fasciotomy (see last reference for video of procedure), an operation where the thick, fibrous bands that line the muscles are filleted open, allowing the muscles to swell and relieve the pressure within the compartment (similar to splitting open the casing of a sausage). Depending upon the amount of swelling (edema), a second operation may be required later to close the skin after the swelling has resolved.
Once acute compartment syndrome has occurred, there is no non-surgical alternative. Hyperbaric oxygen may be considered as an adjunct treatment after surgery to promote healing.
Treatment will also be directed to the underlying cause of the compartment syndrome and to try to prevent other associated complications including kidney failure due to rhabdomyolysis.