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What is the anatomy of the big toe?
The first MTP joint is a hinge joint with sliding and rotational components. There is also a set of paired sesamoid bones underneath the base of the big toe. There are nine ligaments that span the joint, which is covered by a capsular ligamentous balloon-like structure that helps holds the synovial fluid that lubricates the joint. The primary movers or muscles that move the joint of the MTP are the flexor hallicis brevis. Flexor hallicus longus are the muscles that plantar flex or curl the big toe; contraction of the extensor hallicus longus and brevis lift the toe and important muscles in normal foot function.
The primary movements of the joint at the base of the big toe are flexion and extension. The toe is also capable of being moved closer to and away from the foot.