Cold, Flu, Allergy - Cough Treatment

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When you get a cough, what treatment or remedies help soothe your symptoms?

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A cough is a common symptom of viral respiratory infections and allergies. A cough can also be caused by other conditions, some of them serious. For example, a cough can be a symptom of asthma, acid reflux into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD), sinusitis, postnasal drip, bronchitis, cigarette smoking, pneumonia, tuberculosis, hypersensitivity pneumonia (inflammation of the lung from exposure to certain environmental chemicals), and even lung cancer. Therefore, a persistent cough or a cough that is associated with chest pain, fever, weight loss, or blood-tinged or discolored sputum should be evaluated by a doctor.

There are three types of cough medications available OTC for the temporary relief of cough due to a cold. They are oral cough suppressants, oral expectorants, and topical (externally applied) medicines.

Oral cough suppressants

Codeine and hydrocodone are narcotic oral cough suppressants that require a doctor's prescription. Dextromethorphan is an oral cough suppressant that is available OTC. Dextromethorphan is chemically related to codeine and acts on the brain to suppress cough, but it does not have the pain-relieving and addictive properties of codeine. Diphenhydramine is another non-narcotic medication that acts on the brain to suppress cough. It is also an antihistamine.

Dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine can be used to relieve a dry, hacking cough. They are not generally used to suppress a productive cough (when sputum is coughed up). Suppressing a productive cough impairs the clearing of secretions and mucous from the airways, which is generally undesirable. However, cough suppressants are sometimes used to suppress even productive coughs if they are especially bothersome and prevent restful sleep.

Oral expectorants

Guaifenesin is an oral expectorant that is believed to increase the leaking of fluid out of the lung tissue and into the airways. This action thins (liquefies) the thick mucous in the airways and facilitates the clearing of the mucous by coughing. Clearing of mucous from the airways decreases cough.

Topical medications

Camphor and menthol are topical cough medications. Camphor and menthol ointments are rubbed on the throat and the chest as a thick layer. The anesthetic action of their vapors is believed to relieve cough. They are also available as products for steam inhalation. Menthol is also available as lozenges and compressed tablets.

Examples of products in the cough category include the following:

Cough suppressants: Benylin Adult Cough Formula, Buckley's Mixture, Diabe-Tuss DM, and St Joseph Cough Suppressant for Children and Delsym (effective for 12 hours)

Expectorant: Hytuss, Robitussin and Mucinex

Topical cough medicines: Hall's Menthol-Lyptus Cough Supp. Drops, Mentholatum, Vick's VapoRub, and Vick's Vaposteam

Cough suppressant plus an expectorant and other cold/flu/allergy ingredients: Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold and Cough, Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold and Flu, Comtrex Deep Chest Cold & Congestion Relief, Coricidin HBP Cough and Cold Tablets, Dimetapp Cold and Cough Liqui-Gels Maximum Strength, PediaCare Cough-Cold Liquid and Chewable Tablets, Robitussin Maximum Strength Cough and Cold, TheraFlu Flu Cold and Cough Medicine, and Triaminic AM Cough and Decongestant formula

Since many of these combinations also contain an antihistamine, a decongestant, and an analgesic in addition to the cough suppressant and expectorant, they also provide relief of nasal congestion, sneezing, fever, and aches.

In October 2000, an advisory panel of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that phenylpropanolamine (PPA), an ingredient contained in many OTC and prescription cold medications as well as weight-loss products, be classified as unsafe because of reports of stroke associated with the this ingredient. Many companies voluntarily chose to reformulate their products to exclude phenylpropanolamine. The FDA has been taking steps to remove phenylpropanolamine from all drug products and has requested that all drug companies discontinue marketing products containing this ingredient.

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See what others are saying

Comment from: joax, 25-34 Female (Patient) Published: December 05

It starts with itchy throat for 2 days then starts with cough and runny nose. In my last check up with my doctor I found I have asthma. As remedy for sore throat, I have always been using Strepsils, that I get from drugstore.

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Comment from: Dalvinder S., 45-54 Male (Patient) Published: April 06

I was lactose intolerant for years, started drinking low fat milk and it helped. I tried drinking raw milk that was not pasteurized and had no intolerance. I researched raw milk and found the natural beneficial bacteria in unpasteurized milk increased my digestion of milk. By the way, raw milk taste much better than pasteurized.

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