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What are schizophrenia symptoms and signs?
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), symptoms of schizophrenia include the following:
Positive, more overtly psychotic symptoms
are beliefs that have no basis in reality. Types of delusions include erotic, grandiose (for
example, religious), jealous, persecutory, physical (somatic), mixed, and nonspecific.
Hallucinations: hearing (for example, hearing voices), seeing, feeling (for example, feeling like bugs are crawling on the skin), smelling, or tasting things that have no basis in reality
Disorganized speech: incoherent or often grossly off topic (derailed)
Negative symptoms, potentially less overtly psychotic
Inhibition of facial expressions, lack of emotional responsiveness
Catatonic behaviors: difficulty moving, resistance to moving, hyperactivity, repetitive or otherwise abnormal movements, and/or nonsense word repetition or of what others say or do
Self-neglect, poor grooming, and lack of good hygiene
Lack of speech
Apathy/lack of motivation
Prior to the development of the full-blown disorder, people who go on to develop schizophrenia often exhibit more subtle and/or less specific symptoms, also called prodromal symptoms. Some such symptoms may include slowness in activity and thought, lower cognitive functioning, including memory loss, disorientation and mental confusion; abnormal speech, including circumstantial, vague, or stereotyped speech. People with prodromal schizophrenia also tend to have mood problems, like general discontent, inappropriate emotional responses, fear, mistrust, hostility, aggression, excitability, agitation and inability to feel pleasure; social isolation, self-centeredness that borders on narcissism, and other problems socializing.