What tests and exams led to a diagnosis of hypothyroidism?
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How is hypothyroidism diagnosed?
A diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be suspected in patients with fatigue, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry, flaky skin. A blood test is needed to confirm the diagnosis.
When hypothyroidism is present, the blood levels of thyroid hormones can be measured directly and
are usually decreased. However, in early hypothyroidism, the level of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) may be normal. Therefore, the main tool for the detection of hyperthyroidism is the measurement of the TSH, the thyroid stimulating hormone. As mentioned earlier, TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland. If a decrease of thyroid hormone occurs, the pituitary gland reacts by producing more TSH and the blood TSH level increases in an attempt to encourage thyroid hormone production. This increase in TSH can actually precede the fall in thyroid
hormones by months or years (see the section on Subclinical Hypothyroidism below). Thus, the measurement of TSH should be elevated in cases of hypothyroidism.
However, there is one exception. If the decrease in thyroid hormone is actually due to a defect of the pituitary or hypothalamus, then the levels of TSH are abnormally low. As noted above, this kind of thyroid disease is known as "secondary" or "tertiary" hypothyroidism. A special test, known
as the TRH test, can help distinguish if the disease is caused by a defect in the pituitary or the hypothalamus. This test requires an injection of the TRH hormone and is performed by an endocrinologist (hormone specialist).
The blood work mentioned above confirms the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, but does not point to an underlying cause. A combination of the patient's clinical history, antibody screening (as mentioned above), and a thyroid scan can help diagnose the precise underlying thyroid problem more clearly. If a pituitary or hypothalamic cause is suspected, an MRI of the brain and other studies may be warranted. These investigations should be made on a case by case basis.