Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) (cont.)
How do physicians diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome?
The risk for potential fetal alcohol syndrome is established during the first prenatal visit. Pregnant women are questioned regarding behavioral risk factors, including illicit drug usage, alcohol consumption, smoking, and other high-risk behaviors. Several screening questionnaires may be utilized; these include (1) T-ACE, (2) TWEAK, and (3) AUDIT-C. There are several laboratory blood studies that may indicate recent use or repeated and excessive alcohol abuse.
Prenatal indicators for potential alcohol use would note smaller than expected growth in length, weight, and head measurements. Slower than expected head growth is a reflection of subnormal brain growth. Once born, the above-noted facial changes will lead the pediatrician to consideration of the diagnosis of FAS. The myriad of developmental and cognitive delays discussed above will also stimulate consideration of FAS in children who are failing in cognitive advancement or with associated behavioral deficiencies.