Surviving Prostate Cancer (cont.)

Miller's battle with prostate cancer began with an annual physical, in which a Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test and a Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) were included. His family doctor detected no irregularities by touch during the DRE, and his PSA was fairly normal at a 3.6 level. However, the number had risen over a period of three tests during the last two years, which caught his doctor's attention.

According to Miller, a rise of .75 percent or greater per year can be an indicator that cancer is present, and many doctors miss this detail as they rely instead on the most current PSA and DRE results.

Miller's doctor sent him to a urologist to do a biopsy, but he decided to have a less-invasive FPSA test done to measure the percentage of free versus bound PSA. The report came back with a 13 percent free PSA.

"That's not good because anything under 20 percent free count is an indicator of cancer," he says.

Looking to be extra careful, Miller had another FPSA test done which reported back the same 13 percent.

He began to get concerned.

"At that point, I figured I had better go have a biopsy," he says. "It's a procedure where they lay you on the side under a mild anesthetic, go through the anus and take clippings from the prostate. My doctor took 10 clippings. If they do only six, they might miss the cancerous parts, and my doctor preferred to do more than less to be sure. This caused more trauma to the prostate: a little pain and some bleeding."

But when the lab report came back, it was negative for cancer.

"On one hand, I was happy, but on the other hand, if I hadn't done the two FPSA tests, I'd be less skeptical."

With two tests reporting that something was wrong and a distrust of the lab's ability to be right all the time, Miller sent slides of the biopsy off to John Hopkins University to be reassessed.

The original lab assured Miller they would reexamine the biopsy as well, and one week later, he received both results: cancer.

"The original lab came back and apologized," Miller says. "It never hurts to double-check again. I knew enough of the fallibility of medicine to know to double-check the process."

When examining the biopsy, Miller's doctor was looking for differentiation.

He was fortunate his cancer was encapsulated, in that it had not spread outside the prostate. However, more uncertainty was ahead of him.

"It was pretty conclusive that I had cancer," he says. "But you never, ever really know if you actually have it until they open you up and remove your prostate. Five percent of the time they find it was a misdiagnosis and there isn't cancer."