Vertebroplasty: Osteoporosis Back Fracture Repair

Medical Author: William C. Shiel, Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

Because broken bones due to osteoporosis, the progressive loss of bone tissue, are very common and may be very painful, a new way of treating these fractures called vertebroplasty is real medical news.

Normal bone is composed of a framework made of a particular protein, collagen, and calcium salts. Osteoporosis depletes both the collagen and the calcium salts from the bone. The bone then becomes weaker and more prone to breaks (fractures), either by cracking or by collapsing (compression).

Patients with osteoporosis generally have no symptoms until the bone fractures begin. Fractures of the bony building blocks (vertebrae) of the spine are usually a result of the compression of bone. This leads to collapse of the vertebrae much like a sponge collapsing under the pressure of one's hand. A fracture that collapses a vertebra in this way is referred to as a vertebral compression fracture.

Spinal vertebral fractures can occur without pain. However, they often cause a severe "band-like" pain that radiates from the spine around both sides of the body. Over many years, the spinal fractures cause a loss of height of the spine resulting in the person becoming shorter. A curvature of the spine can also occur giving the individual a hunched-back appearance (the so-called dowager's hump). This can lead to chronic backaches.

The treatment of vertebral compression fractures has been limited to taking pain medicine, resting, avoiding injury, and bracing.

A unique procedure to treat new vertebral compression fractures, first developed in France, was pioneered in the United States by Dr. Mary E. Jensen at the University of Virginia. The technique is called vertebroplasty and is performed by a radiologist without surgery.