Pneumococcal Pneumonia (cont.)


Your healthcare provider can diagnose pneumonia based on your

Other bacteria and germs also can cause pneumonia. Therefore, if you have any of the symptoms of pneumonia, you should get diagnosed early and start taking medicine, if appropriate.

Your healthcare provider can usually diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia by finding Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria in your blood, saliva, or lung fluid.


Your healthcare provider usually will prescribe antibiotics to treat this disease. The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia usually go away within 12 to 36 hours after you start taking medicine.

Some bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, however, are now capable of resisting and fighting off antibiotics. Such antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide because these medicines have been overused or misused. Therefore, if you are at risk of getting pneumococcal pneumonia, you should talk with your healthcare provider about what you can do to prevent it.


Getting the pneumococcal vaccine is the main way you can reduce your chances of getting pneumococcal pneumonia. Vaccines are available for children and adults.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that you get the pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine if you are in any of the following groups:

  • You are 65 years old or older
  • You have a serious long-term health problem such as heart disease, sickle cell disease, alcoholism, lung disease (not including asthma), diabetes, or liver cirrhosis
  • Your resistance to infection is lowered due to
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Lymphoma, leukemia, or other cancers
    • Cancer treatment with X-rays or medicines
    • Treatment with long-term steroid medicines
    • Bone marrow or organ transplant
    • Kidney failure or kidney syndrome
    • Damaged spleen or no spleen
  • You are an Alaskan Native or from certain Native American populations

CDC also recommends that all babies and children younger than 59 months old get the pneumococcal vaccine. Children over 24 months old who are at high risk of getting pneumococcal disease and adults with risk factors may receive the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

Contact your healthcare provider to find out whether you or your child should be vaccinated to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia.


In about 30 percent of people with pneumococcal pneumonia, the bacteria invade the bloodstream from the lungs. This causes bacteremia, a very serious complication of pneumococcal pneumonia that also can cause other lung problems and certain heart problems.


NIAID supports research on more effective prevention and treatment approaches to control pneumonia and its causes, including:

  • Developing and testing vaccines and treatments for the disease-causing microbes that cause pneumonia
  • Stimulating research on the structure and function of these microbes
  • Developing better and more rapid tools to diagnose pneumonia
  • Understanding the long-term health impact respiratory pathogens (germs) have in various populations
  • Examining the effect of vaccines in high-risk populations
  • Determining how pneumococcus causes disease and becomes resistant to antibiotics

NIAID research has made important contributions to developing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children. This vaccine helps prevent pneumococcal diseases in babies and toddlers and is the latest advance in developing vaccines against common bacterial infections.


National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Last Editorial Review: 2/16/2011

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