Aging: Can Hormones Prevent Aging? (cont.)
Finally, most of the processes in the body are tightly controlled and regulated. Too much stimulation can elicit natural responses to inhibit a hormone's action. The body's system of checks and balances is complicated and the notion that hormone supplements can improve function may be an oversimplification.
Dehydroepiandrosterone or DHEA is made from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, which sit on top of each kidney. Production of this substance peaks in the mid-20s, and gradually declines with age in most people. What this drop means or how it affects the aging process, if at all, is unclear. In fact, scientists are somewhat mystified by DHEA and have not fully sorted out what it does in the body. However, researchers do know that the body converts DHEA into two hormones that are known to affect us in many ways: estrogen and testosterone (see below).
Supplements of DHEA can be bought without a prescription and are sold as "anti-aging remedies." Some proponents of these products claim that DHEA supplements improve energy, strength, and immunity. DHEA is also said to increase muscle and decrease fat. Right now there is no consistent evidence that DHEA supplements do any of these things in people, and there is little scientific evidence to support the use of DHEA as a "rejuvenating" hormone. Although the long-term (over 1 year) effects of DHEA supplements have not been studied, there are early signs that these supplements, even when taken briefly, may have several detrimental effects on the body including liver damage.
In addition, some people's bodies make more estrogen and testosterone from DHEA than others. There is no way to predict who will make more and who will make less. Researchers are concerned that DHEA supplements may cause high levels of estrogen or testosterone in some people. This is important because testosterone may play a role in prostate cancer, and higher levels of estrogen are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. It is not yet known for certain if supplements of estrogen and testosterone, or supplements of DHEA, also increase the risk of developing these types of cancer. In women, high testosterone levels can cause acne and growth of facial hair.
Overall, the studies that have been done so far do not provide a clear picture of the risks and benefits of DHEA. For example, some studies in older people show that DHEA helps build muscle and reduce fat, but other studies do not. Researchers are working to find more definite answers about DHEA's effects on aging, muscles, and the immune system. In the meantime, people who are thinking about taking supplements of this hormone should understand that its effects are not fully known. Some of these unknown effects might turn out to be harmful.