Chest Exercises to Help Tone and More
Whether a man or a woman, strong, developed chest muscles are a plus
By Barbara Russi Sarnataro
Reviewed By Michael W. Smith, MD
Sure, chest exercises help give a man a nice physique, but working out the chest can help women, too, by lifting sagging chests and breasts.
Think of anything you do that involves pushing and you've discovered what you use the chest muscles for. Whether it's pushing a lawn mower, baby carriage, or grocery cart, strong chests help us perform these tasks.
In addition, chest muscles are essential in sports like tennis, free-style swimming, and all sports where you throw a ball.
"Just because of the forward motion of daily life, the pectorals tend to get used," says Richard Cotton, an exercise physiologist in San Diego.
Things like driving or working at a computer all day keep chest muscles activated at a low level. That's good and bad, he says.
"The challenge is too much pec exercise," says Cotton. For example, someone who sits at a computer eight hours a day can really suffer negative effects from having continually engaged pectorals.
Posture Is Key
"We tend to get shorter muscles from working keyboards," he says. Shorter muscles mean a tighter chest and that usually translates to weak back muscles.
This can become a postural problem, having rounded shoulders and not being able to stand upright. It can also lead to shoulder injuries as the arms suffer a decreased range of motion.
When sitting at a desk, be conscious of posture, says Lisa Cooper, fitness director of Little Rock Athletic Club in Arkansas.
"Think about dropping your shoulders down and pulling your shoulder blades back and together; visualize holding a pencil between the blades while keeping your abdominals engaged to support the back," she says.
Cotton says working the chest is great when done in balance.
"Chest exercises need to be integrated into a whole-body workout including other major muscle groups, especially the abdominals," he says.
"People need to think of working muscles in pairs, doing equal amounts of exercises with opposing muscle groups. If you're working chest, you should also work back. If you're working biceps, you should also work triceps."
And, she says, if you alternate between the two opposing muscle groups, you don't have to rest between sets, which can cut down your workout time.
If done correctly, many chest exercises simultaneously recruit and work other muscles groups.
"If you're pushing a car or a lawn mower," explains Cotton, "naturally the back and abs are also very activated. Having weak abs is going to hurt your back."
Chest exercises primarily use the chest but recruit supporting muscle groups to assist. In a push-up, for example, not only are the pectorals engaged but the abdominals, the latissimus dorsi in the back, the deltoids in the shoulders, and the triceps in the back of upper arms are involved.
Experts say pectorals are not usually a neglected group among those developing a workout program. Quite the contrary.
"The show muscles [such as pecs and abs] are usually something that people that are motivated to exercise are going to try to build -- men especially," says Cotton.
Many men focus solely on their upper bodies and particularly their chests, says Cooper, because they can see the progress.
But everyone should be wary of sacrificing balance in a zealous desire to have a nice chest.
"This is not a muscle group you want to overemphasize to the detriment of the opposing back muscles," Cotton says. "You should balance the two for a healthy program."
For women, chest exercises, done in balance can help to lift a sagging chest, strengthening the muscles that help lift the breast tissue, particularly in someone who's overweight, losing weight, or has just had a baby.
"Getting the chest in shape lifts the chest," says Cotton. "It may appear that you have a bigger chest (whether you're striving for that or not), but it's a healthier look. It's better posture."
Women concerned with building bulk shouldn't be, he says.
"Only 10% of women actually gain significant muscle mass doing chest exercises," says Cotton.
"You'd have to be on a pretty serious body-building regime to get that bulk," says Cooper. "And you'd have to be genetically predisposed to it."
"It would take heavy weights and low repetitions to create size," says Cooper. Women are generally doing higher repetitions with lower weights so bulk is not really an issue.
Don't Forget to Stretch
Regardless of which muscle group you're working, stretching is an important component of a comprehensive strength-training program. Be sure to complete each workout with stretches for those muscles you've taxed.