Heart Health and Nutrition (cont.)
Dark, leafy green vegetables are rich in magnesium, and whole grains and nuts also are good sources.
"Cooked and processed foods also lose a lot of magnesium, making it a very deficient mineral." That's why Dean suggests taking 300 mg two to three times a day of magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, or magnesium glycinate. Magnesium supplements can interfere with the absorption of certain medications and may cause diarrhea, so be sure to talk to your doctor first.
Data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Harvard School of Public Health back up Dean's claims. A higher intake of magnesium may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Research has shown that low levels of magnesium may impair insulin sensitivity or function. Consuming adequate levels of magnesium may help insulin function properly in the body, which may prevent type 2 diabetes.
The American Heart Association (AHA) lists diabetes as one of the six major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In fact, adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have heart disease or a stroke than adults without diabetes.
Not Fooling With Folic Acid
Folic acid, a B vitamin, is important for heart health, experts agree. The amount of homocysteine in the blood, a marker for heart disease, is regulated by folic acid.
"High levels of homocysteine can lead to heart disease, and the way to combat high homocysteine is to take folic acid," says Michael Poon, MD, chief of cardiology at Cabrini Medical Center in New York. Aim for 1 milligram or 1,000 micrograms a day, he says.
Homocysteine may damage the blood vessel walls and promote blood clots, and although studies have consistently shown that high levels are associated with an increased risk of heart disease, researchers are still not sure whether lowering the level of homocysteine reduces heart disease risk.
But homocysteine levels are strongly influenced by diet, and several studies have shown that higher blood levels of B vitamins -- specifically folic acid -- are related, at least partly, to lower concentrations of homocysteine. Today, cereals, breads, and other grains like rice are fortified with extra folic acid. Fruits and vegetables like spinach, strawberries, oranges, and broccoli have high levels of folic acid.
But don't forget the other Bs, says Nancy Kennedy, MS, RD, a nutritionist at the Ministrelli Women's Heart Center at Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, Mich. Vitamins B-6 and B-12 are also important in lowering homocysteine. "Many clinicians emphasize folic acid, but actually all three B vitamins are involved in the metabolism of homocysteine, and B-6 is one of the vitamins that is typically very low in the American diet," she says. The American Dietetic Association (ADA) suggests 2 mg of B-6 and 6 micrograms of B-12. Beef liver, baked potatoes, watermelon, and banana are rich in B-6, while milk, meats (beef, pork, lamb, veal, fish, poultry), eggs, and cheese are replete with B-12.