Fujita Tornado Damage Scale
Developed in 1971 by T. Theodore Fujita of the University of Chicago
||Wind Estimate ***(MPH)
||Light damage. Some damage to chimneys; branches broken off
trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over; sign boards damaged.
||Moderate damage. Peels surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed
off foundations or overturned; moving autos blown off roads.
||Considerable damage. Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile
homes demolished; boxcars overturned; large trees snapped or uprooted;
light-object missiles generated; cars lifted off ground.
||Severe damage. Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed
houses; trains overturned; most trees in forest uprooted; heavy cars
lifted off the ground and thrown.
||Devastating damage. Well-constructed houses leveled;
structures with weak foundations blown away some distance; cars thrown
and large missiles generated.
||Incredible damage. Strong frame houses leveled off
foundations and swept away; automobile-sized missiles fly through the
air in excess of 100 meters (109 yds); trees debarked; incredible
phenomena will occur.
*** IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT F-SCALE WINDS: Do not use F-scale winds
literally. These precise wind speed numbers are actually guesses and have
never been scientifically verified. Different wind speeds may cause
similar-looking damage from place to place -- even from building to building.
Without a thorough engineering analysis of tornado damage in any event, the
actual wind speeds needed to cause that damage are unknown.
Source: NOAA, Storm Prediction CenterLast Editorial Review: 8/30/2005