The Truth About Fats
Not all fats are equal. Learn which ones actually boost your health!
By John Casey
Reviewed By Charlotte E. Grayson, MD
For years, fat has been the bogeyman of bad health. Increasingly, however, research is showing that not all fats are equal. Some oils and fatty foods contain chemicals called essential fatty acids, which our bodies need for good health. How do you know the difference between good fats and bad fats? Read on!
"We've had such emphasis on eating low-fat foods," says Patricia Kendall, PhD, RD, a professor at the Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Office. "But all these new studies on oils and high-fat foods like nuts and cold-water fish show we've been ignoring how much we need certain fats."
The two essential fatty acids most important to good health are omega-3 and omega-6. But we need these in the right balance in order to protect our hearts, joints, pancreas, mood stability, and skin.
Unfortunately, we eat way too much omega-6, which is found in the corn oil and vegetable oils used in so much American food. Too much omega 6 can raise your blood pressure, lead to blood clots that can cause heart attack and stroke, and cause your body to retain water.
We don't eat nearly enough omega-3, which can reduce our risk for heart disease and cancer. Omega-3 is found in fish and fish oil, all green leafy vegetables, flax seed, hemp, and walnuts.
How Much Fat Do You Really Need?
Most experts recommend that we get 30% of our calories from fat, although we can survive fine on as little as 20%, even 10%. If you're like most of us, you're getting plenty of fat - most Americans consume about 40% of their calories from fats in meat, butter, cheese, baked goods, etc.
The better question to ask is, "Are you getting the enough of the right fats?" says Ruth Kava, PhD, RD, of the American Council of Science and Health. "Most of us get too much fat, and too much unhealthy fat," she says.
Making the Switch
To make the switch to heart-healthy fats, start by avoiding the truly unhealthy fats - trans fatty acids. These trans fats come from vegetable oils that were chemically modified so they are solid like butter. Because these oils don't spoil as quickly as butter, they are used in most packaged cookies, chips, crackers and other baked goods sold in the supermarket, as well as in margarines.
The solidifying process - called hydrogenation - extends the shelf life of food, but it also turns polyunsaturated oils into a kind of man-made cholesterol. Trans fats can increase your level of "bad" LDL cholesterol, and may increase your risk of heart disease. What's more, these man-made fats are taken up by the body much easier than are omega-3s. So trans fatty acids not only harm your health, they also block the absorption of healthy fats.
"How bad trans fats are for you depends on how much you eat," says Kava. "Trans fats can raise your blood cholesterol as much as excess cholesterol (from the diet) can in some people."
To avoid trans fats, look on the nutrition label of packaged foods. They'll appear on the ingredients list as "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated" vegetable oils. If you can, switch to products that don't use hydrogenated oils. The baked goods won't last quite as long in your pantry, but your body will benefit.
Now for the good news: There are some fatty snacks that actually boost your health!
Nuts are the latest high-fat food to undergo a change in dietary reputation.
"It doesn't seem to matter what nuts you eat to get important benefits, as long as they don't have added oil and salt," says Kendall.
The latest pro-nut research is out of the Harvard School of Public Health. Researchers found that women who reported eating a half serving of peanut butter or a full serving of nuts five or more times a week showed as much as a 30% reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. And the findings go on.
Other nuts, including almonds, walnuts, and pecans, have been shown to have heart healthy benefits, including lowering "bad" LDL cholesterol. (Remember, walnuts are also a source of omega-3.)
Nuts to Avoid
There really aren't any unhealthy nuts, as long as you leave of the oil and salt. But it's important to remember that all nuts are high in calories.
"You can't just add them to your diet," says Kendall. "You really need to think about using them to replace empty calories. Think about them as excellent substitutes for junk food."
Bring on the Fish
For a while now, cold-water species of fish such as salmon, tuna, trout, striped bass, sardines, and herring have taken the spotlight as the best protein-rich food source because they are loaded with omega-3 fatty acids. Studies show that people who eat such fish two times a week have less heart disease, a reduced risk of cancer, and improvements in mental health, particularly in mood function. But there's a caveat.