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Preterm Labor and Birth

Preterm Labor and Birth

WebMD Feature

Contractions and dilation (opening) of the cervix before 37 weeks of pregnancy are considered preterm, or premature, labor. A normal pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks after the first day of the last period (38 weeks after fertilization). The danger of preterm labor is that it will lead to the birth of a baby that has not fully developed, and therefore has a high risk of complications. About 10% of all pregnancies result in premature birth. About 60% of serious complications or infant deaths are due to consequences of premature birth.

Preterm labor can be extremely frightening, because mothers-to-be quite naturally fear that their baby will be born too early and suffer the problems of prematurity. If your baby is born too soon, there is a great chance that her lungs will be underdeveloped. If so, she'll need to be put onto a ventilator that can breathe for her. Receiving oxygen through a ventilator can lead to complications.

Your baby may also have trouble maintaining a normal body temperature, and may become hypothermic (too cold). She'll need to be kept warm. Your baby might be so early that she can't coordinate her muscles to suck and swallow. If this is the case, she'll have to be fed through a needle in the vein (intravenously), or through a tube passed into her nose, down her throat and into her stomach. A premature baby may also develop complications such as bleeding into the brain; an increased risk of infections, especially meningitis and sepsis; problems with kidney function; and jaundice. Premature babies are at higher risk for long-term complications, which may include vision impairment or blindness, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy and chronic lung problems. The earlier the baby is born, the more likely that she will have these complications.