How Writing Saved My Life (cont.)
Pennebaker's interest in the potential of writing therapy was sparked by conversations with government polygraph operators. A criminal's heart rate and breathing, he learned, is much slower immediately after a confession than before. Since then, he's spent much of his career proving that we can all feel better after confronting the past through writing.
The effect isn't just emotional, Pennebaker says. One of his studies, published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in April 1988, found that college students had more active T-lymphocyte cells, an indication of immune system stimulation, six weeks after writing about stressful events. Other studies have found that people tend to take fewer trips to the doctor, function better in day-to-day tasks, and score higher on tests of psychological well-being after such writing exercises, he says.
A new study, published in the April 14, 1999 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, shows that expressive writing can even ease the symptoms of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.
Joshua Smyth, PhD, an assistant professor of psychology at North Dakota State University, and colleagues asked 70 people with either asthma or rheumatoid arthritis to write about the most stressful event in their lives. The study participants wrote about their emotional pain for twenty minutes straight on three consecutive days. Another group of 37 patients wrote about their plans for the day.
Four months later, 47% of the group that wrote about past traumas showed significant improvement -- less pain and greater range of motion for the arthritis patients, increased lung capacity for the asthmatics -- while only 24% of the group that wrote about their daily activities showed such progress.
Pain From the Past
Researchers don't know exactly why writing about painful events can improve health, but the answer probably lies somewhere in the still-mysterious connections between stress and disease, Pennebaker says.
Numerous studies have found that prolonged emotional stress can weaken the immune system, promote heart disease, and worsen the course of arthritis, asthma, and many other diseases. In one particularly startling example, a study published in the December 16, 1998 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute found that elderly people who were depressed had nearly double the risk of developing cancer.
Putting traumatic memories into words can help ease turmoil and defuse the danger, Smyth says. "Writing gives you a sense of control and a sense of understanding," he says. "To write about a stressful event, you have to break it down into little pieces, and suddenly it seems more manageable."