Helping Children Get Thin (cont.)
Is Dieting Risky?
Most parents know that potbellies are bad for their child's health and self-esteem. But some are also convinced that restricting calories may be just as hazardous to their youngster's well-being. Yet while it's true that under 2 years old, your baby needs fat for proper body and brain development, a sensible lower-fat diet for older children may be just what the doctor ordered, particularly if obesity runs in the family.
"Some fat in the diet is important in children for their proper growth and development," says Denise Bruner, MD, president of the American Society of Bariatric Physicians, whose members specialize in treating obesity. "I generally say that a diet with 30% of its total calories from fat is acceptable in children."
According to Eden, "Starting at age 2, every child, whether fat or thin, should be eating a prudent diet lower in saturated fat, cholesterol, and refined sugar. In my practice, for instance, I recommend that every child over age 2 start drinking skim or 1% fat milk. They should consume more complex carbohydrates, too, such as salads and pasta."
With the best of intentions, some parents have put their child on the same fad diets that they've become hooked on, often oblivious to any potential health risks. The Atkins diet, for example, promotes unlimited amounts of protein and fat, and severe restrictions on carbohydrate-rich foods, which some experts believe could be a prescription for nutritional misfortune in kids.
"The Atkins diet is so restrictive that children can become deficient in many vitamins and minerals," cautions Rarback. "It is low in calcium, for instance, and growing children certainly need calcium. It is also low in grains that are fortified with iron, folic acid, and the B vitamins.
"Anyone on the Atkins diet needs to take supplements, and I'm very uncomfortable with children being on any diet where they rely on pills for their vitamins and minerals."
There are even some diet books aimed specifically at children, most notably Sugar Busters! for Kids, whose authors include three physicians. An analysis of the book, recently issued by the ADA, says that "there is little to criticize about this diet since it encourages a very healthy lifestyle, including nutritious foods that children typically avoid." At the same time, the critique from the ADA questions the program's restrictive nature, which makes foods like sugary sodas, french fries, candy, white rice, and potatoes taboo; the ADA notes that by denying children their favorite foods completely, it sets them up for eventual failure.
"It's unrealistic to tell an 8-year-old to never eat desserts again," says Rarback. "Make them 'occasional foods.' It's not every mouthful that counts -- it's the total diet."