Shortness of Breath & VP Cheney (cont.)

Anxiety

Anxiety can lead to acute or chronic hyperventilation (excessively rapid breathing). An average 150 pound (70 kilogram) adult breaths at an average rate of 14 breaths per minute at rest. Excessively rapid breathing is referred to as hyperventilation. It is a common cause of shortness of breath.

Muscle & Nerve Diseases

Numerous diseases of muscles and the nervous system can lead to shortness of breath by weakening the body's capacity for opening the lungs up for respiration. Examples of muscle diseases include muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis. Examples of nervous system diseases that can cause shortness of breath include Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS) and multiple sclerosis.

Heart Disease

Many conditions that affect the heart and its capacity to move blood through the lungs can lead to shortness of breath. These conditions include a heart attack (that Mr. Cheney feared), congestive heart failure, and heart valve disease.

Lung Vessel Disease

The blood vessels that transport blood to and from the lungs and permit the vital exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen can be compromised by disease and lead to shortness of breath. Examples of conditions that affect these blood vessels include pulmonary embolism (a clot in the lungs), pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery), and pulmonary vasculitis (inflammation of pulmonary vessels).

Lung Disease

Lung diseases that can cause shortness of breath include infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis, lung cancer and cancer that has spread to the lung, chemical and radiation toxicity to the lung (including radiation therapy), occupational toxicities (such as from silicon in mines), sarcoidosis, hemosiderosis, tuberculosis, fungus infections such histoplasmosis and coccidiomycosis (valley fever), allergic reactions (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) drug toxicity, and connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.