Cruising with Confidence (cont.)
Outbreaks on cruise ships have gained media attention, but an estimated 60 percent to 80 percent of all outbreaks of severe gastroenteritis occur on land, says the CDC. Norovirus infection is the most common cause of non-bacterial gastrointestinal illness in the United States; about 23 million cases of severe gastroenteritis a year are due to noroviruses. Noroviruses may be found in areas where people congregate together for days at a time, such as in schools, hotels, camps, nursing homes, and hospitals. Gastroenteritis is not a reportable illness in the United States except on cruise ships, so the public may be more aware of the shipboard incidences, says Forney.
By law, cruise ships that enter a U.S. port from a foreign port are required to report to the CDC, 24 hours prior to arrival, the number of passengers and crew on board who go to the ship's medical facility with gastrointestinal illness, even if the number is zero, says Forney. Having 3 percent or more of either passengers or crew reported with a gastrointestinal illness is considered an outbreak and cause for investigation.
Travelers shouldn't shun cruises, says Forney. "It is perfectly safe to go on cruise ships. The standard by which they are held for sanitation is the highest in the world." Extensive cleaning and disinfecting were carried out on ships immediately following reports of illness, Forney adds. And cruise lines continue to scrub and sanitize public areas of their ships, especially frequently touched surfaces such as handrails, elevator buttons, and even poker chips.
For more information, please visit the following MedicineNet.com areas:Food and Drug Administration (http://www.fda.gov/).
Last Editorial Review: 6/9/2003