Smallpox Q and A (cont.)

Contaminated clothing or bed linen could also spread the virus. Special precautions need to be taken to ensure that all bedding and clothing of patients are cleaned appropriately with bleach and hot water. Disinfectants such as bleach and quaternary ammonia can be used for cleaning contaminated surfaces.

If someone is exposed to smallpox, is it too late to get a vaccination?

If the vaccine is given within 4 days after exposure to smallpox, it can lessen the severity of illness or even prevent it.

If people got the vaccination in the past when it was used routinely, will they be immune?

Not necessarily. Routine vaccination against smallpox ended in 1972. The level of immunity, if any, among persons who were vaccinated before 1972 is uncertain; therefore, these persons are assumed to be susceptible. For those who were vaccinated, it is not known how long immunity lasts. Most estimates suggest immunity from the vaccination lasts 3 to 5 years. This means that nearly the entire U.S. population has partial immunity at best. Immunity can be boosted effectively with a single revaccination. Prior infection with the disease grants lifelong immunity.

How many people have not had the vaccination?

Approximately half of the U.S. population has never been vaccinated.

Is it possible for people to get smallpox from the vaccination?

No, smallpox vaccine does not contain smallpox virus but another live virus called vaccinia virus. Since this virus is related to smallpox virus, vaccination with vaccina provides immunity against infection from smallpox virus.

How safe is the smallpox vaccine?

Smallpox vaccine is considered very safe. Some people are at greater risk for serious side effects from the smallpox vaccine. Adverse reactions have been known to occur that range from mild rashes to rare fatal encephalitis and disseminated vaccina.

Individuals who have any of the following conditions, or live with someone who does, should NOT get the smallpox vaccine unless they have been exposed to the smallpox virus:

  • Eczema or atopic dermatitis. (This is true even if the condition is not currently active, mild or experienced as a child.)

  • Skin conditions such as burns, chickenpox, shingles, impetigo, herpes, severe acne, or psoriasis. (People with any of these conditions should not get the vaccine until they have completely healed.)

  • Weakened immune system. (Cancer treatment, an organ transplant, HIV, or medications to treat autoimmune disorders and other illnesses can weaken the immune system.)

  • Pregnancy or plans to become pregnant within one month of vaccination.

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