Anthrax, Then and Now

Medical Author: Michael C. Fishbein, MD
Previous Medical Editor: Leslie J. Schoenfield, MD, PhD
Revising Medical Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD


Experts have said that it is a matter of when, not if, a large scale act of bioterrorism is carried out in the U.S. Why "bio" terrorism? Biologic weapons are cheaper and more devastating than chemical weapons and maybe even nuclear weapons. Deadly quantities of infectious agents are easy to hide, transport, and spread throughout the population. Indeed, the U.S. already experienced a bioterrorism attack. In 2001, powder containing the bacterium called anthrax was distributed through the U.S. mail. All together, 22 people became infected with anthrax. These people lived in South Florida, New York City, New Jersey, Maryland, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Washington, DC. Eleven people seem to have inhaled the anthrax, and 11 others were infected through the skin. The FBI and CDC (Center for Disease Control) are still investigating this outbreak.

Because of this outbreak, most Americans are now aware of the infectious disease called anthrax. Most are also aware that it is usually a disease of animals and that it is a rare cause of disease or death in humans. Prior to the outbreak in 2001, the last case of fatal anthrax in the United States was in 1976. Moreover, no fatal cases occurred in the preceding 10 years. What may not be as widely known, however, is that the 1976 case occurred in California. This was not a case of bioterrorism. The patient did die of the infection, and the autopsy was performed at UCLA Medical Center. The details of this case have been described in a medical journal called Human Pathology (Volume 9, pages 594-597, September, 1978).