Breast Cancer (cont.)
When you're told that you have breast cancer, it's natural to wonder what may
have caused the disease. But no one knows the exact causes of breast cancer.
Doctors seldom know why one woman develops breast cancer and another doesn't.
Doctors do know that bumping, bruising, or touching the breast does not cause
cancer. And breast cancer is not contagious. You can't catch it from another
Doctors also know that women with certain risk factors are more likely than
others to develop breast cancer. A risk factor is something that may increase
the chance of getting a disease.
Some risk factors (such as drinking alcohol) can be avoided. But most risk
factors (such as having a family history of breast cancer) can't be avoided.
Studies have found the following risk factors for breast cancer:
- Age: The chance of getting breast cancer increases as you get older. Most
women are over 60 years old when they are diagnosed.
- Personal health history: Having breast cancer in one breast increases
your risk of getting cancer in your other breast. Also, having certain types
of abnormal breast cells (atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ
[LCIS], or ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) increases the risk of invasive
breast cancer. These conditions are found with a breast biopsy.
- Family health history: Your risk of breast cancer is higher if your
mother, father, sister, or daughter had breast cancer. The risk is even
higher if your family member had breast cancer before age 50. Having other
relatives (in either your mother's or father's family) with breast cancer or
ovarian cancer may also increase your risk.
- Certain genome changes: Changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2,
substantially increase the risk of breast cancer. Tests can sometimes show
the presence of these rare, specific gene changes in families with many
women who have had breast cancer, and health care providers may suggest ways
to try to reduce the risk of breast cancer or to improve the detection of
this disease in women who have these genetic changes.
Also, researchers have found specific regions on certain chromosomes that
are linked to the risk of breast cancer. If a woman has a genetic change in
one or more of these regions, the risk of breast cancer may be slightly
increased. The risk increases with the number of genetic changes that are
found. Although these genetic changes are more common among women than BRCA1
or BRCA2, the risk of breast cancer is far lower.
- Radiation therapy to the chest: Women who had radiation therapy to the
chest (including the breasts) before age 30 are at an increased risk of
breast cancer. This includes women treated with radiation for Hodgkin
lymphoma. Studies show that the younger a woman was when she received
radiation treatment, the higher her risk of breast cancer later in life.
- Reproductive and menstrual history:
- The older a woman is when she has her
first child, the greater her chance of breast cancer.
- Women who never had
children are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
- Women who had their
first menstrual period before age 12 are at an increased risk of breast
- Women who went through menopause after age 55 are at an increased
risk of breast cancer.
- Women who take menopausal hormone therapy for many
years have an increased risk of breast cancer.
- Race: In the United States, breast cancer is diagnosed more often in
white women than in African American/black, Hispanic/Latina, Asian/Pacific
Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native women.
- Breast density: Breasts appear on a mammogram (breast x-ray) as having
areas of dense and fatty (not dense) tissue. Women whose mammograms show a
larger area of dense tissue than the mammograms of women of the same age are
at increased risk of breast cancer.
- History of taking DES: DES was given to some pregnant women in the United
States between about 1940 and 1971. (It is no longer given to pregnant
women.) Women who took DES during pregnancy may have a slightly increased
risk of breast cancer. The possible effects on their daughters are under
- Being overweight or obese after menopause: The chance of getting breast
cancer after menopause is higher in women who are overweight or obese.
- Lack of physical activity: Women who are physically inactive throughout
life may have an increased risk of breast cancer.
- Drinking alcohol: Studies suggest that the more alcohol a woman drinks,
the greater her risk of breast cancer.
Having a risk factor does not mean
that a woman will get breast cancer. Most women who have risk factors never
develop breast cancer.
Many other possible risk factors have been studied. For example,
researchers are studying whether women who have a diet high in fat or who
are exposed to certain substances in the environment have an increased risk
of breast cancer. Researchers continue to study these and other possible