Bipolar II Disorder (cont.)
Hypomania often masquerades as happiness and relentless optimism. When hypomania is not causing unhealthy behavior, it often may go unnoticed and therefore remain untreated. This is in contrast to true mania, which by definition causes problems in functioning and requires treatment with medications.
People with bipolar II disorder can benefit from preventive drugs that level out moods over the long term. These prevent the negative consequences of hypomania, and also help to prevent episodes of depression.
Lithium: This simple metal in pill form is highly effective at controlling mood swings (particularly highs) in bipolar disorder. Lithium has been used for more than 60 years to treat bipolar disorder. Lithium can take weeks to work fully, making it better for long-term treatment than for acute hypomanic episodes. Blood levels of lithium and other laboratory tests (such as kidney and thyroid functioning) must be monitored periodically to avoid side effects.
Lamictal: This drug is approved by the FDA for the maintenance treatment of adults with bipolar disorder. It has been found to help delay bouts of mood episodes of depression, mania, hypomania (a milder form of mania), and mixed episodes in people being treated with standard therapy.
By definition, hypomanic episodes do not involve psychosis and do not interfere with functioning. Antipsychotic drugs, such as Abilify, Risperdal, Seroquel and others, are nevertheless sometimes used in hypomania and some (notably, Seroquel) are used for depression in bipolar II disorder.
This class of drugs includes Xanax, Ativan, and Valium and is commonly referred to as tranquilizers. They are used for short-term control of acute symptoms associated with hypomania such as insomnia or agitation.
Seroquel and Seroquel XR are the only medications FDA-approved specifically for bipolar II depression. Common antidepressants such as Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are also sometimes used in bipolar II depression, and are thought to be less likely to cause or worsen hypomania than is the case in bipolar I disorder. Other medicines sometimes used to treat bipolar II depression include mood stabilizers such as lithium or Depakote, and occasionally Lamictal (although the proven value of Lamictal in bipolar disorder is stronger for preventing relapses than treating acute episodes of bipolar depression). Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, may also help.
Because bipolar II disorder typically involves recurrent episodes, continuous and ongoing treatment with medicines is often recommended for relapse prevention.
Can Bipolar II Disorder Be Prevented?
The causes of bipolar disorder are not well understood. It's not known if bipolar II disorder can be prevented entirely.
It is possible to prevent some episodes of hypomania or depression, once bipolar disorder has developed. Regular therapy sessions with a psychologist or social worker can stabilize mood, leading to fewer hospitalizations and feeling better overall. Taking medicine on a regular basis also leads to fewer hypomanic or depressive episodes.
How Is Bipolar II Disorder Different From Other Types of Bipolar Disorder?
People with bipolar I disorder experience true mania -- a severe, abnormally elevated mood with erratic behavior. Manic symptoms lead to serious disruptions in life, causing legal or major personal problems.
In bipolar II disorder, the symptoms of elevate mood never reach full-on mania. Hypomania in bipolar II is a milder form of mood elevation. However, the depressive episodes of bipolar II disorder are often longer-lasting and may be even more severe than in bipolar I disorder. Therefore, bipolar II disorder is not simply a "milder" overall form of bipolar disorder.