Twilight Sleep ... Childbirth Without Pain?
"Twilight sleep" refers to a combination of analgesia (pain
relief) and amnesia (loss of memory) that can be produced by giving
a mixture of morphine and scopolamine ("scope") by a hypodermic
injection (an injection under the skin).
Twilight sleep was once very much in vogue in obstetrics. The
mixture of the two drugs created a state in which the woman, while
responding somewhat to pain, did not remember it after she had
delivered her baby.
Morphine and scopolamine are both venerable drugs that have been
around a long time. Both are also naturally occurring members of the
very large chemical class of compounds called alkaloids:
- Morphine: The name "morphine" was coined in 1805 by the
German pharmacist Adolf Serturner -- "morphine" refers to Morpheus,
the mythologic god of dreams -- to designate the main alkaloid
contained in opium. Opium, of course, comes from a plant: the poppy.
Morphine is a powerful narcotic agent with strong analgesic action
and other significant effects on the central nervous
system. It is dangerously addicting.
- Scopolamine: Scopolamine was introduced in 1902 and used
up until the 1960's. The name comes from that of the 18th-century
Italian naturalist Giovanni Scopoli. Together with atropine,
scopolamine is a component of belladonna which comes from a plant
called "deadly nightshade," once used as a means of poisoning ones
enemy. When scopolamine is given in lower (non-poisonous) doses,
it causes drowsiness, amnesia, and euphoria (a "high") and was thus
used as a preanesthetic agent.