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- What is ritonavir, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
- What brand names are available for ritonavir?
- Is ritonavir available as a generic drug?
- Do I need a prescription for ritonavir?
- What are the side effects of ritonavir?
- What is the dosage for ritonavir?
- Which drugs or supplements interact with ritonavir?
- Is ritonavir safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding?
- What else should I know about ritonavir?
What is ritonavir, and how does it work (mechanism of action)?
Ritonavir is an oral medication that is used for treating infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is in a class of drugs called protease inhibitors which also includes indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), emtricitabine (Emtriva) and saquinavir (Invirase, Fortovase). During infection with HIV, the HIV virus multiplies within the body's cells. Viruses are released from the cells and spread throughout the body where they infect other cells. In this manner, HIV infection is perpetuated among new cells that the body produces continually. During the production of the viruses, new proteins are made. Some of the proteins are structural proteins, that, is, proteins that form the body of the virus. Other proteins are enzymes which manufacture DNA and other components for the new viruses. Protease is the enzyme that forms the new structural proteins and enzymes. Ritonavir blocks the activity of protease and results in the formation of defective viruses that are unable to infect the body's cells. As a result, the number of viruses in the body (the viral load) decreases. Nevertheless, ritonavir does not prevent the transmission of HIV among individuals, and it does not cure HIV infections or AIDS. The FDA approved ritonavir in June 1999.
What brand names are available for ritonavir?
Is ritonavir available as a generic drug?
GENERIC AVAILABLE: No
Do I need a prescription for ritonavir?
What are the side effects of ritonavir?
The most serious side effects are:
- liver failure,
- inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis),
- heart block, and
- severe allergic reactions.
Ritonavir also may elevate blood glucose resulting in new onset diabetes. Fat redistribution, elevated triglycerides, and elevated cholesterol levels also occur. Patients with hemophilia may experience spontaneous bleeding. Immune reconstitution syndrome which is an inflammatory response to infection may occur in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.
Other important side effects include:
- nausea and vomiting,
- taste disturbance,
- skin sensations (burning, prickling and tingling),
- weakness, and
- insomnia (difficulty sleeping).
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