Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a condition resulting in a particular series of discolorations of the fingers and/or the toes after exposure to changes in temperature (cold or hot) or emotional events.
Skin discoloration occurs because an abnormal spasm of the blood vessels causes
a diminished blood supply to the local tissues. Initially, the digit(s) involved turn white
because of the diminished blood supply. The digit(s) then turn blue because of
prolonged lack of oxygen. Finally, the blood vessels reopen, causing a
local "flushing" phenomenon, which turns the digit(s) red. This three-phase color sequence
(white to blue to red), most often upon exposure to cold temperature, is characteristic of RP.
Raynaud's phenomenon most frequently affects women,
especially in the second, third, or fourth decades of life. People can have Raynaud's phenomenon alone or as a part of other rheumatic diseases. Raynaud's phenomenon in children is essentially identical to Raynaud's phenomenon in adults. When it
occurs alone, it is referred to as "Raynaud's disease" or primary Raynaud's phenomenon. When it accompanies other diseases, it is called secondary Raynaud's
Reviewed by Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD on 7/26/2012
My mother has a condition in which her fingers turn completely white--especially during the winter--and when the blood returns to her fingers, they tingle. A rheumatologist told her today that she possibly has scleroderma. What is the prognosis and treatment for this disease?
Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Medical Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD
The condition you are describing in your mother's fingers is compatible with Raynaud's phenomenon. Raynaud's phenomenon is a condition resulting in discoloration of the fingers and/or the toes after exposure to changes in temperature (cold or hot) or emotional events. Skin discoloration occurs because an abnormal spasm of the blood vessels causes a diminished blood supply to the local tissues.
Raynaud's phenomenon is particularly common in patients with scleroderma, although it may occur with other diseases or by itself. Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease of connective tissue. Autoimmune diseases are diseases which occur when the body's tissues are attacked by its own immune system. Scleroderma is characterized by the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the skin and organs of the body. This leads to thickness and firmness of involved areas, most frequently in the fingers. The cause of scleroderma is not known.
Secondhand smoke refers to tobacco smoke that is passively breathed in by
people in the vicinity of a person who is smoking. Terms that have been used to
refer to secondhand smoke are passive smoking, invol"...