Rash

  • Medical Author:
    Gary W. Cole, MD, FAAD

    Dr. Cole is board certified in dermatology. He obtained his BA degree in bacteriology, his MA degree in microbiology, and his MD at the University of California, Los Angeles. He trained in dermatology at the University of Oregon, where he completed his residency.

  • Medical Editor: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR

    Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

A woman rubs cream on an elbow rash.

Rash facts

  • Rash is not a specific diagnosis. Instead it refers to any sort of inflammation and/or discoloration that distorts the skin's normal appearance.
  • Common rashes include eczema, poison ivy, hives, and athlete's foot.
  • Infections that cause rashes may be fungal, bacterial, parasitic, or viral.
  • Over-the-counter products may be helpful treatments for many skin rashes.
  • Rashes lasting more than a few days that are unexplained should be evaluated by a doctor.

What are the causes, symptoms, and signs of common noninfectious rashes?

Some common, noninfectious rashes are listed on the following pages. If you have a new rash and you have a fever or some other generalized illness associated with it, it would be best to see your doctor.

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Rash Symptoms

Other signs and symptoms that may be associated with rashes include the following:

  • Blister formation
  • Scaling
  • Skin ulceration

Some people may experience the following related rash symptoms and signs:

  • Skin discoloration
  • Itching
  • Bumps on skin
A close-up of atopic dermatitis of the neck.

Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis, often called eczema, is a common disorder of childhood that produces red itchy, weeping rashes on the inner aspects of the elbows and in back of the knees as well as the cheeks, neck, wrists, and ankles. It is commonly found in patients who also have asthma and hay fever.

Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is the single most common rash affecting adults. It produces a red scaling often itchy eruption that characteristically affects the scalp, forehead, brows, cheeks, and external ears. In infants, it may involve and scalp (cradle cap) and diaper area.

A close-up of contact dermatitis from poison ivy.

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a rash that is brought on either by contact with a specific chemical to which the patient is uniquely allergic or with a substance that directly irritates the skin. Some chemicals are both irritants and allergens. This rash is tends to be weepy and oozy and affects the parts of the skin which have come in direct contact with the offending substance. Common examples of allergic contact dermatitis are poison ivy, poison sumac, poison oak (same chemical, different plant) and reactions to costume jewelry containing nickel.

Diaper rash

This is a common type of irritant contact dermatitis that occurs in most infants and some adults who wear diapers when feces and urine are in contact with skin for too long.

Stasis dermatitis

This is a weepy, oozy dermatitis that occurs on the lower legs of individuals who have chronic swelling because of poor circulation in veins.

View Skin Problems Slideshows
A woman examines a patch of psoriasis on her elbow.

Psoriasis

This bumpy scaling eruption which does not weep or ooze. Psoriasis tends to occur on the scalp, elbows, and knees. The skin condition produces silvery flakes of skin that scale and fall off.

Hives

These red itchy bumps come on in a sudden fashion and then resolve in about eight hours. They tend to recur frequently. If hives are caused by a drug, that drug should be avoided in the future.

A close-up of a nummular eczema rash.

Nummular eczema

This is a weepy, oozy dermatitis that tends to occur as coin-shaped plaques in the wintertime and is associated with very dry skin.

Drug eruptions

Certain drugs (like antibiotics) can produce a skin rash as an unwanted side effect. The common appearance is similar to rashes produced by certain common viral infections. On the other hand, drugs may produce a wide variety of other types of rashes.

A baby's leg with heat rash.

Heat rash (miliaria)

This skin eruption is caused by the occlusion of sweat ducts during hot, humid weather. It can occur at any age but is most common in infants who are kept too warm. Heat rash looks like a red cluster of acne or small blisters. It is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases. Treatment involves moving the individual to a cooler environment.

Rashes not caused by infectious organisms, can be treated with over-the-counter 1% hydrocortisone cream for a week or so prior to seeking medical attention. Over-the-counter oral antihistamines like diphenhydramine (Benadryl) or hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax) can be helpful in controlling the itching sensation.

A doctor examines a baby's skin rash.

What health care professionals diagnose and treat rashes?

Dermatologists, pediatricians, infectious diseases specialists, and many internists are capable of identifying most rashes.

How do health care professionals diagnose common skin rashes?

The term rash has no precise meaning but often is used to refer to a wide variety of red skin eruptions. A rash is any inflammatory condition of the skin. Dermatologists have developed various terms to describe skin rashes. The first requirement is to identify a primary, most frequent feature. The configuration of the rash is then described using adjectives such as "circular," "ring-shaped," "linear," and "snake-like." Other characteristics of the rash that are noted include density, color, size, consistency, tenderness, shape, and even temperature. Finally, the distribution of the rash on the body can be very useful in diagnosis since many skin diseases have a predilection to appear in certain body areas. Although certain findings may be a very dramatic component of the skin disorder, they may be of limited value in producing an accurate diagnosis. These include findings such as ulcers, scaling, and scabbing. Using this framework, it is often possible to develop a list, called a differential diagnosis, of the possible diseases to be considered. An accurate diagnosis of a skin rash often requires a doctor or other health care professional. On the basis of the differential diagnosis, specific laboratory tests and procedures can be conducted to identify the cause of a particular rash.

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A close-up of a circular rash caused by ringworm.

Rashes produced by fungal infections

Fungal infections are fairly common. Yeasts are botanically related to fungi and can cause skin rashes. These tend to affect folds of skin (like the skin under the breasts or the groin). They look fiery red and have pustules (blisters) around the edges.

Fungus and yeast infections have little to do with hygiene -- clean people get them, as well. Fungal rashes are not commonly acquired from dogs or other animals. They seem to be most easily acquired in gyms, showers, pools, or locker rooms, or from other family members. Many effective antifungal creams can be bought at the drugstore without a prescription, including 1% clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex) and 1% terbinafine (Lamisil). With extensive infection, or when toenails are involved, a prescription drug may be useful, such as oral terbinafine.

If a fungus has been repeatedly treated without success, it is worthwhile considering the possibility that it was never really a fungus to start with but rather a form of eczema. Eczema is treated entirely differently. A fungal infection can be independently confirmed by performing a variety of simple tests.

A male stomach covered in folliculitis.

Rashes produced by bacterial infections

The most common bacterial infections of the skin are folliculitis and impetigo. Staph or strep germs may cause folliculitis and/or impetigo, two conditions that are much more common in children than adults. Eruptions caused by bacteria are often pustular (the bumps are topped by pus) or may be plaque-like and quite painful (such as with cellulitis). Rarely, streptococcal sore throat can produce scarlet fever, a rash affecting large areas of skin. Rashes produced by certain classes of bacteria, Rickettsia or spirochetes, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and secondary syphilis respectively, are often able to be suspected clinically.

Viral exanthems

Rashes that characteristically occur as part of certain viral infections are called exanthems. Many rashes from viruses are more often symmetrical and affect the skin surface all over the body, including roseola and measles. Sometimes certain viral rashes are localized to the cheeks, such as parvovirus infections (fifth disease). Other viral infections, including herpes or shingles, are mostly localized to one part of the body. Patients with such rashes may or may not have other symptoms like coughing, sneezing, localized burning ,or stomach upset (nausea). Viral rashes usually last a few days to two weeks and resolve on their own.

Quick GuideRosacea, Acne, Shingles: Common Adult Skin Diseases

Rosacea, Acne, Shingles: Common Adult Skin Diseases
A picture of scabies.

Rash due to parasites

One of the most common rashes from a parasite infection is scabies. Scabies is produced by a small mite (related to a spider). This mite is usually contracted by contact with another infected individual. The mite lives in the superficial layers of human skin. It does not produce symptoms until the host becomes allergic to it, which occurs about three weeks after the initial infection. It can resemble eczema. Bedbugs cause a series of eruptions where they pierce the skin.

View Skin Problems Slideshows
A skin rash being treated with a topical cream.

What is the treatment for a rash?

Most rashes are not dangerous. Many rashes last a while and get better on their own. It is therefore not unreasonable to treat symptoms like itchy and/or dry skin for a few days to see whether the condition gets milder and goes away.

Nonprescription (over-the-counter) remedies include the following:

  • Anti-itch creams containing 1% hydrocortisone cream can be effective
  • Oral antihistamines like diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine can be helpful in controlling the itching.
  • Moisturizing lotions
  • Fungal infections are best treated with topical antifungal medications that contain clotrimazole (Lotrimin), miconazole (Micatin), or terbinafine (Lamisil).

If these measures do not help, or if the rash persists or becomes more widespread, a consultation with a general physician or dermatologist is advisable.

There are many, many other types of rashes that we have not covered in this article. So, it is especially important, if you have any questions about the cause or medical treatment of a rash, to contact your doctor. This article, as the title indicates, is just an introduction to common skin rashes.

A word on smallpox vaccination in patients with rashes

People with atopic dermatitis or eczema should not be vaccinated against smallpox, whether or not the condition is active. Patients with atopic dermatitis are more susceptible to having the virus spread on their skin, which can lead to a serious, even life-threatening condition called eczema vaccinatum. In the case of other rashes, the risk of medical complications is much less. Consult your doctor about the smallpox vaccine.

What is the prognosis for a rash?

The prognosis depends on the cause of the rash. An accurate identification is, therefore, of great importance in predicting its resolution.

Is it possible to prevent rashes?

If the cause of a particular rash is known it can be avoided. For example: a measles vaccination would be of great benefit in preventing the rash of measles, as well more serious consequences of measles infections.

Reviewed on 5/2/2017
References
REFERENCES:

Bolognia, Jean L., Joseph L. Jorizzo, and Ronald P. Rapini. Dermatology, 2nd Ed. Spain: Mosby, 2008.

Rawlin, Morton. "Exanthems and Drug Reactions." Australian Family Physician 40.7 July 2011: 486-489.

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5.Color Atlas of Pediatric DermatologySamuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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8.Color Atlas of Pediatric Dermatology Samuel Weinberg, Neil S. Prose, Leonard Kristal Copyright 2008, 1998, 1990, 1975, by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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