Radiation Therapy Related Diseases & Conditions

Medical tests and procedures are used to diagnose and treat a wide variety of conditions. Our doctors have compiled a list of ailments related to the topic of Radiation Therapy that may be used to diagnose or monitor the status of the diseases and conditions listed below.

  • Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) There are many symptoms involved in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. The first early pregnancy symptom is typically...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pregnancy (Week By Week, Trimesters) Article
    • Pregnancy facts*
    • Introduction
    • What is the first trimester (week 1-week 12)?
    • What is the second trimester (week 13-week 28)?
    • What is the third trimester (week 29-week 40)?
    • How will my baby develop week by week?
    • What are the changes that happen to a woman's body during her 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy?
    • Body aches
    • Breast changes
    • Constipation
    • Dizziness
    • Fatigue, sleep problems
    • Heartburn and indigestion
    • Hemorrhoids during pregnancy
    • Itching
    • Leg cramps
    • Morning sickness
    • Nasal problems
    • Numb or tingling hands
    • Stretch marks, skin changes
    • Swelling
    • Urinary frequency and leaking
    • Varicose veins
  • Colon Cancer Colon cancer is a malignancy that arises from the inner lining of the colon. Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from...learn more »
    In This Article
    Colon Cancer Article
    • Colon cancer facts
    • What is cancer?
    • What is cancer of the colon and rectum?
    • What are the causes of colon cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of colon cancer?
    • What tests can be done to detect colon cancer?
    • How can colon cancer be prevented?
    • What are the treatments and survival for colon cancer?
    • What is the follow-up care for colon cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with colorectal cancer?
  • Lung Cancer Lung cancer kills more men and women than any other form of cancer. Eight out of 10 lung cancers are due to tobacco smoke. Lung...learn more »
  • Uterine Cancer Though uterine cancer's cause is unknown, there are many factors that will put a woman at risk, including: over age 50,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Uterine Cancer Article
    • Uterine cancer facts
    • What is the uterus?
    • What is uterine cancer (endometrial cancer)?
    • What causes uterine cancer? Who is at risk for uterine cancer?
    • What are uterine cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is a diagnosis of uterine cancer determined?
    • How is the stage determined for uterine cancer?
    • What are treatment options for uterine cancer?
    • What about surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer?
    • What about radiation therapy for the treatment of uterine cancer?
    • What about chemotherapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer?
    • What about hormone therapy for the treatment of uterine cancer?
    • How does a person go about getting a second opinion after a uterine cancer diagnosis?
    • What sort of follow-up treatment is needed during and after uterine cancer treatment?
    • What support is available for patients with uterine cancer?
    • What research is being done on uterine cancer?
  • Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count) Thrombocytopenia refers to a decreased number of platelets in the blood. There are many causes of thrombocytopenia such as...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelet Count) Article
    • Thrombocytopenia facts
    • What is thrombocytopenia?
    • What causes thrombocytopenia?
    • What are the symptoms of thrombocytopenia?
    • When should I seek medical care for thrombocytopenia?
    • How is thrombocytopenia diagnosed?
    • How is thrombocytopenia treated?
    • What are the complications of thrombocytopenia?
    • Can thrombocytopenia be prevented?
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a "silent" disease because early...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pancreatic Cancer Article
    • Pancreatic cancer facts
    • What is the pancreas, and what is the function of the pancreas?
    • What is cancer?
    • What is pancreatic cancer?
    • What are pancreatic cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of pancreatic cancer?
    • How is the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer made?
    • How is pancreatic cancer staged?
    • What is the treatment for resectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer?
    • What is the treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer?
    • What are side effects of pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • What is the prognosis of pancreatic cancer?
    • What research is being done on pancreatic cancer?
    • Is complimentary or alternative therapy effective in pancreatic cancer treatment?
    • Can pancreatic cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people get support when coping with pancreatic cancer?
    • Where can people find additional information about pancreatic cancer?
  • Ovarian Cancer There are many types of ovarian cancer, epithelial carcinoma is the most common. Women with a family history of ovarian cancer...learn more »
    In This Article
    Ovarian Cancer Article
    • What is ovarian cancer?
    • Epithelial ovarian cancer
    • Borderline ovarian tumors
    • Germ cell ovarian cancers
    • Stromal ovarian cancers
    • The statistics for ovarian cancer
    • What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer?
    • What are ovarian cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?
    • How is ovarian cancer staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for ovarian cancer?
    • What is the prognosis of ovarian cancer?
    • Can ovarian cancer be prevented?
  • Brain Tumor A brain tumor can be either benign (non cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), primary, or secondary. Causes and risk factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Tumor Article
    • Brain tumor facts*
    • What is the brain?
    • What are the tumor grades and types?
    • Tumor grade
    • Types of primary brain tumors
    • What are the risk factors for brain tumors?
    • What are the symptoms of a brain tumor?
    • How are brain tumors diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for a brain tumor?
    • What type of surgery is available for brain tumors?
    • Radiation therapy for brain tumors
    • Chemotherapy for brain tumors
    • What about a second opinion for brain tumor treatment?
    • Nutrition during brain tumor treatment
    • What supportive care is available for patients and caregivers?
    • What about rehabilitation after brain tumor treatment?
    • What about follow-up care after brain tumor treatment?
    • Sources of support
    • Taking part in cancer research
  • Melanoma Melanoma is a type of skin cancer which begins in skin cells called melanocytes and affects more than 53,600 people in the United...learn more »
    In This Article
    Melanoma Article
    • Melanoma facts
    • Introduction
    • What does melanoma look like? What are the symptoms and signs?
    • What if the skin changes are rapid or dramatic?
    • What are the causes and risk factors for melanoma?
    • How do I know my level of risk for melanoma?
    • What are the types of melanoma?
    • How is melanoma diagnosed?
    • How do doctors determine the prognosis (outlook) of a melanoma?
    • What is the treatment for melanoma?
    • What methods are available to help prevent melanoma?
    • Conclusions
    • What is in the future for melanoma?
    • Additional Resources
  • Keloid A keloid is a scar that doesn't know when to stop. When the cells keep on reproducing, the result is an overgrown (hypertrophic)...learn more »
    In This Article
    Keloid Article
    • What is a keloid?
    • What is the difference between a keloid and a hypertrophic scar?
    • What are keloid symptoms and signs?
    • What is the cause of keloids?
    • Which people are most susceptible to keloids?
    • In which area of the body are keloids most likely to appear?
    • Keloids and piercing
    • Is keloid prevention possible?
    • Is keloid removal necessary?
    • What are the treatments for keloids?
  • Dry Mouth (Xerostomia) Dry mouth is a common side effect of many prescription and non-prescription drugs and certain medical conditions. Symptoms of dry...learn more »
    In This Article
    Dry Mouth (Xerostomia) Article
    • What is dry mouth?
    • How common is dry mouth?
    • What are the benefits of saliva?
    • What causes dry mouth?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of dry mouth?
    • How do health-care professionals diagnose dry mouth?
    • What is the treatment for dry mouth?
    • Is it possible to prevent dry mouth?
    • What is the prognosis of dry mouth?
  • Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is cancer of the entrance to the womb (uterus). Regular pelvic exams and Pap testing can detect precancerous...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cervical Cancer Article
    • Cervical cancer facts*
    • What is the cervix?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the risk factors and causes of cervical cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?
    • How is cervical cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging of cervical cancer determined?
    • What is the treatment for cervical cancer?
    • What are methods of treatment for cervical cancer?
    • How do I go about getting a second opinion?
    • What follow-up care is involved after cervical cancer treatment?
    • What support, research, and clinical trials information is available for cervical cancer patients?
  • Kidney Cancer There are several types of kidney cancer, including renal cell cancer (renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma), transitional cell...learn more »
    In This Article
    Kidney Cancer Article
    • Kidney cancer facts*
    • What are the kidneys?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are kidney cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are kidney cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is kidney cancer diagnosed?
    • How is kidney cancer staging determined?
    • Methods of kidney cancer treatment
    • What are the side effects of treatment for kidney cancer?
    • What happens after treatment for kidney cancer?
    • What does the future hold in the field of kidney cancer?
    • What resources are there for patients with kidney cancer?
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphatic system, a vital part of the body's immune system. Symptoms include swollen...learn more »
    In This Article
    Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Article
    • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma facts
    • What is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What causes non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are symptoms and signs of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • How is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed?
    • What are the types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and how is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What is the prognosis and survival rates of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • Where can people find more information about non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?
  • Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Esophageal Cancer Article
    • Esophageal cancer facts*
    • What is the esophagus?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the types of esophageal cancer?
    • What are esophageal cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are esophageal cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is esophageal cancer diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of esophageal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for esophageal cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Should people get a second opinion after an esophageal cancer diagnosis?
    • What are the side effects of treatment for cancer of the esophagus?
    • What follow-up care is necessary during recovery?
    • Where can people get support for esophageal cancer?
    • How can people with esophageal cancer participate in clinical trials?
    • Where can people find more information about esophageal cancer?
  • Thyroid Cancer There are four major types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Tumors on the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thyroid Cancer Article
    • Thyroid cancer facts*
    • What is the thyroid?
    • What is cancer?
    • What are the different types of thyroid cancer?
    • Thyroid cancer symptoms*
    • How is thyroid cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined for thyroid cancer?
    • What is the treatment for thyroid cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Thyroid hormone treatment
    • Radioactive iodine therapy
    • External radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Second opinion
    • Follow-up care
    • Sources of support
    • Taking part in cancer research
  • Cushing's Syndrome Cushing's syndrome, sometimes referred to as hypercortisolism, is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure to high levels...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cushing's Syndrome Article
    • Cushing's syndrome facts*
    • What is Cushing's syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?
    • What causes Cushing's syndrome?
    • How is Cushing's syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is Cushing's syndrome treated?
    • What research is being done on Cushing's syndrome?
    • For more information
  • Bladder Cancer Treatment for bladder cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the grade of the tumor, and the type of bladder cancer. Options...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bladder Cancer Article
    • Bladder Cancer Facts
    • What is the bladder?
    • What are the layers of the bladder?
    • What is bladder cancer?
    • What is the burden of bladder cancer in the U.S.?
    • What are the types of bladder cancer?
    • What are bladder cancer causes and risk factors?
    • What are bladder cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
    • How is bladder cancer staging determined?
    • What is bladder cancer grading?
    • What is transurethral surgery or "TURBT" for bladder cancer?
    • What is the treatment for superficial bladder cancer?
    • What is surveillance for bladder cancer?
    • What is the treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer?
    • What is chemotherapy for bladder cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for bladder cancer?
    • Can bladder cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information on bladder cancer?
    • What research is being done on bladder cancer?
  • Abdominal Adhesions (Scar Tissue) Abdominal adhesions (scar tissue) bands of scar tissue that form between abdominal organs and tissues. Symptoms of abdominal...learn more »
    In This Article
    Abdominal Adhesions (Scar Tissue) Article
    • Abdominal adhesions facts*
    • What are abdominal adhesions?
    • What causes abdominal adhesions?
    • How can abdominal adhesions cause intestinal obstruction?
    • How can abdominal adhesions cause female infertility?
    • What are the symptoms of abdominal adhesions?
    • What are the symptoms of an intestinal obstruction?
    • How are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions diagnosed?
    • How are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions treated?
    • Can abdominal adhesions be prevented?
  • Brain Cancer Cancers that form from brain tissue are called primary brain tumors. Brain tumors may be malignant (brain cancer) or benign....learn more »
    In This Article
    Brain Cancer Article
    • Brain cancer facts
    • What is brain cancer?
    • What is metastatic brain cancer?
    • What causes brain cancer?
    • Do cell phones cause brain cancer?
    • What are the symptoms and signs of brain cancer?
    • What tests are used to diagnose brain cancer?
    • What is the treatment for brain cancer?
    • What are the side effects of brain cancer treatment?
    • What is the prognosis (outcome) of treated brain cancer?
    • What can I do to help my family (and me) cope with my diagnosis of brain cancer?
    • How is brain cancer prevented?
    • Where can I get more information about my type of brain cancer?
  • Fatigue Fatigue can be described in various ways. Sometimes fatigue is described as feeling a lack of energy and motivation (both mental...learn more »
    In This Article
    Fatigue Article
    • Fatigue Facts
    • Fatigue introduction
    • What causes fatigue?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of fatigue?
    • How is the cause of fatigue diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for fatigue?
    • Can fatigue be prevented?
  • Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma is a form of cancer that develops in plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies. Symptoms include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Multiple Myeloma Article
    • What is multiple myeloma?
    • What causes multiple myeloma?
    • What are risk factors for multiple myeloma?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma?
    • How is multiple myeloma diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of multiple myeloma?
    • What is the treatment for multiple myeloma?
    • What is the prognosis for multiple myeloma?
    • What support systems are available for multiple myeloma?
  • Anal Cancer Anal cancer, cancer located at the end of the large intestine, has symptoms that include anal or rectal bleeding, anal pain or...learn more »
    In This Article
    Anal Cancer Article
    • Anal cancer facts*
    • What is anal cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer?
    • How is anal cancer diagnosed?
    • What affects the prognosis?
    • How is the staging of anal cancer determined?
    • What is recurrent anal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for anal cancer?
    • How does staging affect the treatment of anal cancer?
    • What are the treatment options for recurrent anal cancer?
    • Where can I find more information about anal cancer?
  • Oral Cancer The term oral cancer includes cancer of the mouth (oral cavity) and the back of the mouth (oropharynx). Red and white patches...learn more »
    In This Article
    Oral Cancer Article
    • Oral cancer facts*
    • What is the oral cavity?
    • What is cancer?
    • Who's at risk for oral cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of oral cancer?
    • How is oral cancer diagnosed?
    • How is oral cancer treated?
    • Methods of treatment
    • What are the side effects of treatment for oral cancer?
    • What is rehabilitation for oral cancer?
    • What happens after treatment for oral cancer?
    • What does the future hold for patients with oral cancer?
    • What resources are available to patients with oral cancer?
  • Stomach Cancer Though the cause of stomach cancer is unknown, risk factors for stomach cancer include diet, H. pylori infection, smoking age,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Stomach Cancer Article
    • Stomach cancer facts*
    • What is the stomach?
    • What is cancer, and how does stomach cancer spread?
    • What are risk factors and causes of stomach cancer?
    • What are symptoms of stomach cancer?
    • How is stomach cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for stomach cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation therapy
    • How do I go about getting a second opinion?
    • What are some of the nutritional concerns of stomach cancer patients?
    • What are treatment options for cancer that blocks the digestive tract?
    • What follow-up care is necessary for stomach cancer patients? What about complementary and alternative medicine?
    • What support is there for cancer patients?
    • How can I take part in clinical trials for stomach cancer?
  • Neutropenia Neutropenia is a marked decrease in the number of neutrophils, neutrophils being a type of white blood cell (specifically a form...learn more »
    In This Article
    Neutropenia Article
    • Neutropenia facts
    • What is neutropenia?
    • How is neutropenia defined?
    • What are the clinical consequences of neutropenia?
    • What causes neutropenia?
    • How is neutropenia diagnosed?
    • How is neutropenia treated?
  • Testicular Cancer Testicular cancer symptoms include a painless lump or swelling in a testicle, testicle or scrotum pain, a dull ache in the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Testicular Cancer Article
    • Testicular cancer facts*
    • What is testicular cancer?
    • What are testicular cancer risk factors and causes?
    • How is testicular cancer detected? What are testicular cancer symptoms and warning signs?
    • How is testicular cancer diagnosed?
    • How is testicular cancer treated? What are the side effects of treatment for testicular cancer?
    • Is follow-up treatment necessary for testicular cancer? What does it involve?
    • Are clinical trials (research studies) available for men with testicular cancer?
  • Male Breast Cancer Male breast cancer accounts for 1% of all breast cancers, and most cases are found in men between the ages of 60 and 70. A man's...learn more »
    In This Article
    Male Breast Cancer Article
    • Male breast cancer facts
    • What is male breast cancer?
    • How common is male breast cancer?
    • What are causes and risk factors of male breast cancer?
    • What are the different types of male breast cancer?
    • What are male breast cancer symptoms and signs?
    • How is male breast cancer diagnosed?
    • What is staging of male breast cancer?
    • What is the treatment for male breast cancer?
    • What is the outcome (prognosis) of male breast cancer?
  • Larynx Cancer Symptoms of cancer of the larynx, the organ at the front of the neck, include hoarseness, a lump in the neck, sore throat, cough,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Larynx Cancer Article
    • Throat cancer (larynx cancer) facts*
    • What is the larynx?
    • What is cancer?
    • Who is at risk for larynx cancer?
    • What are symptoms of larynx cancer?
    • How is larynx cancer diagnosed?
    • How is staging for throat cancer determined?
    • What are treatment options for larynx cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Targeted therapy
    • How does a person get a second opinion after a throat cancer diagnosis?
    • What can people with throat cancer eat?
    • What is involved in rehabilitation after surgery for larynx cancer?
    • What follow-up care is needed after treatment for throat cancer?
    • What support is available for patients with larynx cancer?
    • What research is being done on throat cancer? What about clinical trials?
  • Salivary Gland Cancer Salivary gland cancer is cancer that affects the parotid glands, sublingual glands, or the submandibular glands. Risk factors...learn more »
    In This Article
    Salivary Gland Cancer Article
    • What is salivary gland cancer?
    • What increases the risk of salivary gland cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of salivary gland cancer?
    • What exams and tests are used to detect and diagnose salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for salivary gland cancer?
    • What tests are done to determine if salivary gland cancer has spread?
    • How does salivary gland cancer spread in the body?
    • What are the stages for salivary gland cancer?
    • What is the treatment for salivary gland cancer?
    • How does staging affect treatment options?
  • Hodgkin's Disease Hodgkin's disease is a cancer of the lymphatic system with symptoms that include unexplained, recurring fevers, unexplained...learn more »
    In This Article
    Hodgkin's Disease Article
    • Hodgkin's lymphoma facts*
    • What is the lymph system?
    • What is Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are the types of Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • How is the staging determined for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What are the stages of Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What is the treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • Who are the doctor's who treat Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • How do people get a second opinion for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • Clinical trials for treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Targeted therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Stem cell transplantation for Hodgkin's lymphoma
    • Nutrition during cancer treatment
    • What is the follow-up care after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma?
    • What other support is available for cancer patients?
  • Penis Cancer Signs and symptoms of penile cancer include a lump on the penis and redness, irritation, or a sore on the penis. Risk of penis...learn more »
    In This Article
    Penis Cancer Article
    • Penis cancer facts*
    • What is cancer of the penis?
    • What are causes and risk factors for penis cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of penis cancer?
    • How is penile cancer diagnosed?
    • What factors affect prognosis and treatment of penile cancer?
    • How is staging of penile cancer determined?
    • What is the treatment for penis cancer?
    • What are treatment options by stage?
    • Where can I get more information about penis cancer?
  • Cancer Cancer is a disease caused by an abnormal growth of cells, also called malignancy. It is a group of 100 different diseases, and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Article
    • Cancer facts
    • What is cancer?
    • What causes cancer?
    • What are cancer symptoms and signs?
    • What are the different types of cancer?
    • How is cancer diagnosed?
    • How is cancer staging determined?
    • What is the treatment for cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for cancer?
    • Can cancer be prevented?
    • Where can people find more information about cancer?
  • Head and Neck Cancer Head and neck cancer is cancer of the oral cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, or lymph...learn more »
    In This Article
    Head and Neck Cancer Article
    • Head and neck cancer facts*
    • What is cancer?
    • What kinds of cancers are considered cancers of the head and neck?
    • How common are head and neck cancers?
    • What causes head and neck cancers?
    • What are common symptoms of head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers diagnosed?
    • What health professionals treat patients with head and neck cancers?
    • How are head and neck cancers treated?
    • Are clinical trials (research studies) available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • What rehabilitation or support options are available for patients with head and neck cancers?
    • Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does it involve?
    • What can people who have had head and neck cancer do to reduce the risk of developing a second primary (new) cancer?
  • Cataracts A cataract is an eye disease that causes the eye's lens to become cloudy and opaque with decreased vision. Causes of cataracts...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cataracts Article
    • Facts about cataracts
    • What is a cataract?
    • What are the different types of cataracts?
    • What are causes of cataracts?
    • What are risk factors for cataracts?
    • What are the symptoms of cataracts?
    • What are the signs of cataracts?
    • How are cataracts diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for cataracts?
    • What are the different types of cataract surgery, and what risks are involved?
    • What are complications of cataracts?
    • What is the prognosis of cataracts?
    • Can cataracts be prevented?
    • Where can people get more information on cataracts?
  • Bone Cancer Bone cancer is a rare type of cancer that occurs in cells that make up the bones. Primary bone cancer that arises in bone cells...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bone Cancer Article
    • What is bone cancer? What is metastatic bone cancer?
    • Who is at risk for bone cancer?
    • What causes bone cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of bone cancer?
    • What are the different types of bone cancer?
    • What kinds of bone cancer occur in children?
    • What tests are used to diagnose bone cancer?
    • What is the treatment for bone cancer?
    • How is bone cancer pain managed?
    • What is the prognosis for bone cancer?
    • Can bone cancer be prevented?
  • Lymphedema Lymphedema is a condition in which one or more extremities become swollen as the result of an impaired flow of the lymphatic...learn more »
    In This Article
    Lymphedema Article
    • Lymphedema facts
    • What is lymphedema?
    • What causes lymphedema?
    • What are the symptoms of lymphedema?
    • How is lymphedema diagnosed?
    • What are possible treatments for lymphedema?
    • What are complications of lymphedema?
    • Can lymphedema be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for lymphedema?
    • Where can one get help and support for lymphedema?
  • Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor) Prolactinoma is an adenoma (benign tumor) of the pituitary gland. Causes of many prolactinomas are unknown. Symptoms in women...learn more »
    In This Article
    Prolactinoma (Pituitary Tumor) Article
    • Prolactinoma facts
    • What is a prolactinoma (pituitary tumor)?
    • What is the normal function of prolactin?
    • What is the pituitary gland?
    • Where is the pituitary gland located?
    • What problems are caused by a pituitary tumor?
    • How common is a prolactinoma?
    • What are the types of prolactinomas?
    • What causes a prolactinoma?
    • What symptoms are caused by a prolactinoma?
    • Aside from a prolactinoma, what else can cause prolactin levels to rise?
    • How is a prolactinoma diagnosed?
    • What follow-up tests are done after a prolactinoma diagnosis?
    • What are the goals of treatment of a prolactinoma?
    • How is a prolactinoma treated?
    • What medications are used to treat prolactinomas?
    • What is the surgical treatment of a prolactinoma?
    • How do I choose a skilled neurosurgeon?
    • Does a prolactinoma affect pregnancy and oral contraceptives?
    • Do prolactinomas affect oral contraceptives?
    • Is osteoporosis a risk in women with high prolactin levels?
  • Pheochromocytoma Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland. Pheochromocytomas are quite rare and the vast majority of them are entirely...learn more »
    In This Article
    Pheochromocytoma Article
    • Pheochromocytoma facts
    • What is a pheochromocytoma?
    • What are the symptoms of a pheochromocytoma?
    • What conditions are associated with pheochromocytomas?
    • What else can cause the symptoms of a pheochromocytoma?
    • How is pheochromocytoma diagnosis?
    • How is a pheochromocytoma treated?
    • What is the prognosis with a pheochromocytoma?
  • Low Testosterone (Low T) Low testosterone (low-T) can be caused by hypogonadism, conditions such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, liver or kidney disease,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Low Testosterone (Low T) Article
    • Low testosterone (Low-T) definition
    • What are the "normal" levels of testosterone in men?
    • What causes low testosterone (Low-T)
    • What are the symptoms of low testosterone (Low-T)?
    • How is the diagnosis of low testosterone (Low-T) made?
    • How is low testosterone (Low-T) treated?
    • What are the risks of testosterone therapy?
    • What are natural ways of boosting your testosterone?
    • Should I take testosterone?
  • Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is an uncontrolled (malignant) growth of cells in the prostate gland. Prostate cancer is the second leading...learn more »
    In This Article
    Prostate Cancer Article
    • Prostate cancer facts
    • What is the prostate gland?
    • What is prostate cancer?
    • Why is prostate cancer important?
    • What are prostate cancer causes?
    • What are prostate cancer symptoms and signs?
    • What are the screening tests for prostate cancer?
    • What are false positive elevations in the PSA test?
    • What refinements have been made in the PSA test?
    • How is prostate cancer diagnosed and graded?
    • How is the staging of prostate cancer done?
    • What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?
    • What about prostate cancer surgery?
    • What about radiation therapy for prostate cancer?
    • What about hormonal treatment for prostate cancer?
    • What is cryotherapy for prostate cancer?
    • What is HIFU for prostate cancer?
    • What is chemotherapy for prostate cancer?
    • What are the differences between hormonal treatment and chemotherapy?
    • What about herbal or other alternative medicine treatments for prostate cancer?
    • What is active surveillance for prostate cancer?
    • Can prostate cancer be prevented?
    • What will be the future treatments for prostate cancer?
    • Controversy in prostate cancer today
  • Taste Disorders The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception; that is, a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though you have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Taste Disorders Article
    • Taste disorders facts*
    • How common are taste disorders?
    • How does our sense of taste work?
    • What are the taste disorders?
    • What causes taste disorders?
    • How are taste disorders diagnosed?
    • Are taste disorders serious?
    • Can taste disorders be treated?
    • What research is being done?
  • Paget Disease of the Breast Paget's disease is a rare form of cancer that forms in or around the nipple and frequently coexists with breast cancer. The exact...learn more »
    In This Article
    Paget Disease of the Breast Article
    • Paget disease of the breast key points
    • What is Paget disease of the breast?
    • Who gets Paget disease of the breast?
    • What causes Paget disease of the breast?
    • What are the symptoms of Paget disease of the breast?
    • How is Paget disease of the breast diagnosed?
    • How is Paget disease of the breast treated?
    • What is the prognosis for people with Paget disease of the breast?
    • What research studies are under way on Paget disease of the breast?
  • Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is fairly uncommon. There are two types of vaginal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Risk...learn more »
    In This Article
    Vaginal Cancer Article
    • Vaginal cancer facts*
    • What is vaginal cancer?
    • What are causes and risk factors for vaginal cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of vaginal cancer?
    • What tests are used to diagnose vaginal cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for vaginal cancer?
    • How is staging determined for vaginal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for vaginal cancer?
    • Treatment options by stage
    • Treatment options for recurrent vaginal cancer
    • Where can I find more information about vaginal cancer?
  • Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) An enlarged spleen or splenomegaly is generally caused by other diseases or conditions such as infections, cancers, blood...learn more »
    In This Article
    Enlarged Spleen (Splenomegaly) Article
    • What is the spleen, and what is its function?
    • What does the spleen look like, and where is it located in the body?
    • What are the causes of an enlarged spleen?
    • What type of pain, and where is the pain located with an enlarged spleen?
    • What are other signs and symptoms of an enlarged spleen?
    • How is the diagnosis of an enlarged spleen made?
    • What is the treatment for an enlarged spleen?
    • What complications are associated with an enlarged spleen?
    • Can an enlarged spleen be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for someone with an enlarged spleen?
  • Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer is a rare form of cancer with symptoms that include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Gallbladder Cancer Article
    • Gallbladder cancer facts*
    • What is gallbladder cancer?
    • What are risk factors for gallbladder cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of gallbladder cancer?
    • What exams and tests are used to diagnose gallbladder cancer?
    • What factors affects the prognosis for gallbladder cancer?
    • How is the staging of gallbladder cancer determined?
    • What is the treatment for gallbladder cancer?
    • Where can people get more information about gallbladder cancer?
  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is an accelerated form of breast cancer that is not usually detected by mammogram or ultrasound....learn more »
    In This Article
    Inflammatory Breast Cancer Article
    • What is inflammatory breast cancer?
    • What are the symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer?
    • How is inflammatory breast cancer diagnosed?
    • How is inflammatory breast cancer treated?
  • Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) is a rare type of cancer that arises from cells that line the drainage system from the...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Article
    • What is bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)?
    • What are the symptoms of bile duct cancer?
    • How is bile duct cancer diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bile duct cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for bile duct cancer?
    • Can bile duct cancer be prevented?
  • Thymoma Thymoma is an uncommon cancer of the thymus gland. Many thymomas are asymptomatic. When symptoms do occur, they include chest...learn more »
    In This Article
    Thymoma Article
    • Thymoma facts
    • What is thymoma?
    • What causes thymoma, and what are risk factors for thymoma?
    • What are signs and symptoms of thymoma?
    • What other medical conditions are associated with thymoma?
    • How is thymoma diagnosed?
    • What are the stages of thymoma?
    • What is the treatment for thymoma?
    • What is the prognosis for thymoma?
    • Can thymoma be prevented?
  • Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Tumor A carcinoid tumor is a tumor that develops from enterochromaffin cells. The important characteristic of carcinoid tumors that...learn more »
    In This Article
    Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Tumor Article
    • Carcinoid tumor facts
    • What is a carcinoid tumor?
    • What is carcinoid syndrome?
    • How common are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome?
    • What is the prognosis and natural history of carcinoid tumors?
    • Where do carcinoid tumors occur?
    • How are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome diagnosed?
    • How are carcinoid tumors and carcinoid syndrome treated?
  • Urethral Cancer Urethral cancer is a rare form of cancer that primarily affects white females, people over 60 years of age, and those who have...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urethral Cancer Article
    • Urethral cancer facts*
    • What is urethral cancer?
    • What are risk factors for urethral cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of urethral cancer?
    • How is urethral cancer diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for urethral cancer?
    • How is staging of urethral cancer determined?
    • What are the treatment options for urethral cancer?
    • What is the treatment for anterior urethral cancer?
    • What is the treatment for posterior urethral cancer?
    • What is the treatment for recurrent urethral cancer?
    • Where can people find more information about urethral cancer?
  • Breast Cancer Breast cancer is an invasive tumor that develops in the mammary gland. Breast cancer is detected via mammograms, breast...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer Article
    • Breast cancer facts
    • What is breast cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
    • What causes breast cancer?
    • What are the different types of breast cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of breast cancer?
    • How is breast cancer diagnosed?
    • Screening
    • Definitive diagnosis
    • Specialized testing
    • What are the stages of breast cancer?
    • What is the treatment for breast cancer?
    • Surgery
    • Radiation
    • Hormone therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Targeted therapy
    • Breast cancer treatment by stage
    • What are the survival rates and prognosis for breast cancer?
    • What research is being performed on breast cancer?
    • Can breast cancer be prevented?
  • Urinary Incontinence There are many types of urinary incontinence (UI), which is the accidental leakage of urine. These types include stress...learn more »
    In This Article
    Urinary Incontinence Article
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) in men facts*
    • Urinary incontinence (UI) introduction
    • What causes urinary incontinence (UI) in men?
    • How is urinary incontinence (UI) diagnosed?
    • How is urinary incontinence (UI) treated?
    • How do you do Kegel exercises?
    • Hope through research
    • For more information
  • Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma is a type of cancer that usually afflicts children under 5 years of age. The cancer forms in the adrenal glands,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Neuroblastoma Article
    • Neuroblastoma facts*
    • What is neuroblastoma?
    • What are symptoms and signs of neuroblastoma?
    • What tests are used in the detection and diagnosis of neuroblastoma?
    • What is the prognosis for neuroblastoma?
    • What are the stages of neuroblastoma?
    • What is the treatment for neuroblastoma?
    • What are treatment options for neuroblastoma?
  • Bone Cancer Second Source article from Government...learn more »
  • Skin Cancer Skin cancers occur when skin cells undergo malignant transformations and grow into tumors. The most common types of skin cancer,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Skin Cancer Article
    • What is skin cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for skin cancer?
    • What causes skin cancer?
    • What are the different types of skin cancer?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of skin cancer?
    • When is a mole dangerous or high-risk for becoming a skin cancer?
    • What are the most common sites where skin cancer develops?
    • How is skin cancer diagnosed?
    • What is the staging for skin cancer?
    • What is the treatment for skin cancer?
    • What is the prognosis for skin cancer?
    • Can skin cancer be prevented?
    • Sunscreen use and vitamin D
  • Mesothelioma Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that forms in the chest lining (pleural mesothelioma), abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), and...learn more »
    In This Article
    Mesothelioma Article
    • Mesothelioma facts
    • What is mesothelioma?
    • What are the symptoms of mesothelioma?
    • What causes mesothelioma?
    • How much asbestos exposure does it take to get mesothelioma?
    • How long does it take after asbestos exposure for mesothelioma to show up?
    • How is mesothelioma diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for mesothelioma?
    • What is the treatment for mesothelioma?
    • Is there any promising research or are there promising drugs for mesothelioma?
    • What other kinds of information is available for people with mesothelioma?
  • Growth Plate Fractures and Injuries Growth plate fractures and injuries occur in the area growing tissue near the end of the long bones of children and teens. Both...learn more »
    In This Article
    Growth Plate Fractures and Injuries Article
    • What Is the Growth Plate?
    • Who Gets Growth Plate Injuries?
    • What Causes Growth Plate Injuries?
    • How Are Growth Plate Fractures Diagnosed?
    • What Kind of Doctor Treats Growth Plate Injuries?
    • How Are Growth Plate Injuries Treated?
    • What Is the Prognosis for Growth in the Involved Limb of a Child With a Growth Plate Injury?
    • What Are Researchers Trying To Learn About Growth Plate Injuries?
    • Where Can People Find More Information About Growth Plate Injuries?
  • Nasopharyngeal Cancer Nasopharyngeal cancer is a form of cancer in which malignant cells form in the nasopharynx tissues. Risk factors include being of...learn more »
    In This Article
    Nasopharyngeal Cancer Article
    • What is nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are risk factors for nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are symptoms and signs of nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • How is nasopharyngeal cancer diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are the stages of nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What is the treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer?
    • What are treatment options by stage?
    • Where can I get more information about nasopharyngeal cancer?
  • Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava syndrome is compression of the superior vena cava vein located in the upper chest. Causes of superior vena...learn more »
    In This Article
    Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Article
    • Superior vena cava syndrome facts
    • Introduction
    • What causes superior vena cava syndrome?
    • What are the symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome?
    • How is superior vena cava syndrome diagnosed?
    • How is superior vena cava syndrome treated?
    • What is the prognosis for superior vena cava syndrome?
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POF, Premature Ovarian Failure, POI) Primary ovarian iInsufficiency (POF, Premature Ovarian Failure, POI) is the cessation of normal functioning of the ovaries in...learn more »
    In This Article
    Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POF, Premature Ovarian Failure, POI) Article
    • What is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)?
    • What are the symptoms of primary ovarian insufficiency?
    • How many women are affected by or at risk for primary ovarian insufficiency?
    • What causes primary ovarian insufficiency?
    • How is primary ovarian insufficiency diagnosed?
    • Are there associated disorders or conditions associated with primary ovarian insufficiency?
    • What are the treatments for primary ovarian insufficiency?
    • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
    • Calcium and vitamin D supplements
    • Regular physical activity and healthy body weight
    • Treatments for associated conditions
    • Emotional support
    • POI in teens
  • Peyronie's Disease (Curvature of the Penis) Peyronie's disease (or Peyronie disease) is a condition in which scar tissue develops inside the penis. This scar tissue causes...learn more »
    In This Article
    Peyronie's Disease (Curvature of the Penis) Article
    • What is Peyronie's disease?
    • What causes Peyronie's disease?
    • What are the symptoms of Peyronie's disease?
    • How is Peyronie's disease diagnosed?
    • How is Peyronie's disease treated?
    • What are the complications of Peyronie's disease?
    • What is the prognosis for Peyronie's disease?
  • Bowel Incontinence Bowel or fecal incontinence refers to the loss of voluntary control of stool, or bowel movements. The condition can include...learn more »
    In This Article
    Bowel Incontinence Article
    • Bowel incontinence (fecal incontinence) definition
    • What causes bowel incontinence?
    • What are the symptoms of bowel incontinence?
    • How is bowel incontinence diagnosed?
    • What is the treatment for bowel incontinence?
    • What about bowel incontinence in children?
    • Can bowel incontinence be prevented?
    • What is the prognosis for bowel incontinence?
  • Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common type of cancer in children. Symptoms and signs include fever, easy...learn more »
    In This Article
    Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Article
    • What is childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What are causes and risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What are symptoms and signs of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • How is childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed?
    • What is the prognosis for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What are the stages of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What is recurrent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What is the treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
    • What treatments are being tested in clinical trials?
    • What is the treatment for recurrent childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)?
  • Premature Menopause Premature menopause is when menopause occurs in a woman before the age of 40. Causes of premature menopause include premature...learn more »
    In This Article
    Premature Menopause Article
    • Premature menopause facts
    • What is premature menopause?
    • What causes premature menopause?
    • Who is at risk for premature menopause?
    • What are the symptoms for premature menopause?
    • What tests are used to diagnose premature menopause?
    • Is there any treatment for premature menopause?
    • What are complications of premature menopause?
    • What is the outlook (prognosis) for premature menopause?
  • Adult Brain Tumors Adult brain tumors are diseases in which cancer (malignant) cells begin to grow in the tissues of the brain. The brain controls...learn more »
    In This Article
    Adult Brain Tumors Article
    • Adult brain tumor facts*
    • What are adult brain tumors?
    • What are metastatic brain tumors?
    • What are the symptoms of an adult brain tumor?
    • What tests are used to find and diagnose adult brain tumors?
    • What is the grade of a tumor?
    • What are the types of adult brain tumors?
    • How are adult brain tumors treated?
    • Three types of standard treatment are used.
    • Other types of treatment that are being tested in clinical trials
    • Treatment options by type of adult brain tumor
    • Where can a patient get more information about adult brain tumors?
  • Biorhythms Biologic rhythms, or biorhythms, are how our bodies respond to the regular phases of the sun, moon, and seasons. A medical...learn more »
    In This Article
    Biorhythms Article
    • What are biologic rhythms?
    • How does the "body clock" affects symptoms of illness?
    • What are examples of specific diseases affected by biorhythms?
    • Angina
    • Heart attack
    • High blood pressure (hypertension)
    • Hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
    • Asthma
    • Can the "body clock"  affect diagnostic testing?
    • Can drug therapy be matched to the "body clock?"
  • Leukemia Leukemia is a cancer of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. Fevers, night sweats, frequent infections, fatigue, weight...learn more »
    In This Article
    Leukemia Article
    • Leukemia Overview
    • More Leukemia Overview
    • Leukemia Causes
    • Leukemia Symptoms
    • When to Seek Medical Care
    • Leukemia Diagnosis
    • Leukemia Treatment
    • Leukemia Medical Treatment
    • More Leukemia Medical Treatment
    • Leukemia Medications
    • Leukemia Surgery
    • Leukemia Other Therapy
    • Leukemia Follow-up
    • Leukemia Prevention and Prognosis
    • Support Groups and Counseling
  • Cancer Fatigue Cancer fatigue is a lack of energy that is caused by cancer or cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiation, biological...learn more »
    In This Article
    Cancer Fatigue Article
    • Introduction to cancer fatigue
    • What causes cancer-related fatigue?
    • What other factors contribute to fatigue?
    • What can I do to combat fatigue?
    • How does nutrition impact energy level?
    • How does exercise impact energy level?
    • How can I manage my stress?
    • When should I call my doctor?
  • Breast Cancer Prevention Lifestyle changes, a healthy antioxidant-rich diet, exercise, and weight reduction can help reduce a woman's risk of developing...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer Prevention Article
    • Introduction to breast cancer prevention
    • What are the biological causes of breast cancer?
    • What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer?
    • What is the importance of early breast cancer detection?
    • What are the advantages and limitations of mammography?
    • How frequently should women undergo mammography and breast examinations?
    • What is the risk of radiation with repeated mammography screening over the years?
    • Are there any controversies in the area of breast cancer screening?
    • How helpful are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic tests in identifying women at risk?
    • What is the link between estrogen and breast cancer?
    • What are breast cancer prevention treatments?
    • Are there other breast cancer prevention measures?
    • Conclusion
  • Breast Cancer and Coping With Stress Being diagnosed with breast cancer is stressful. Learning relaxation techniques, exercising, eating well, getting adequate sleep,...learn more »
    In This Article
    Breast Cancer and Coping With Stress Article
    • What Causes Stress Among Breast Cancer Patients?
    • How Can I Reduce Stress?
    • How Can I Learn To Relax?
    • What Are Some Effective Relaxation Exercises?
    • How Do I Keep Track Of My Medical Information?
    • What Types Of Help Are Available?
    • What If I Become Unable To Make Decisions About My Health Care?
    • Should I Write A Will?
    • What Should Family Members And Friends Keep In Mind?

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