Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
About 60,000 people die every year of rabies, mostly in Asia and Africa.
In the U.S., one to three people die from rabies each year.
Animal vaccinations and postexposure prophylaxis protocols have nearly
eradicated rabies in the U.S.
Every year more than 15 million people worldwide receive postexposure
vaccination to prevent rabies.
What is rabies?
Rabies is a viral illness spread via the saliva of an infected animal. This
occurs usually through biting a human or another animal. Transmission can also
occur through saliva touching an open wound or touching mucous membranes.
What causes rabies?
Rabies is caused by the rabies virus. The virus infects the brain and
ultimately leads to death. After being bitten by a rabid animal, the virus is
deposited in the muscle and subcutaneous tissue. For most of the incubation
period (which is usually one to three months), the virus stays close to the exposure
site. The virus then travels via peripheral nerves to the brain and from there,
again via peripheral nerves, to nearly all parts of the body.
Any mammal can spread rabies. In the United States, rabies is most often transmitted via the saliva of bats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks. In the developing world, stray dogs are
the most likely animal to transmit rabies. The virus has also been found in cows, cats, ferrets, and horses.
The local health department will usually have information on which animals
in the area have been found to carry the rabies virus.
What are risk factors for rabies?
Any activity that brings someone in contact with possible rabid animals, such as
traveling in an area where rabies is more common (Africa and Southeast Asia)
as well as outdoor activities near bats and other possible rabid animals, all
increase one's risk of getting infected with rabies.
Some examples of vaccines that may be recommended for international travelers
(remember you may need more, fewer, or different vaccinations, depending on your
individual circumstances) include the following:
Rabies: Rabies virus is
endemic in dogs in many countries throughout the world, including, but not
limited to, parts of Thailand, Vietnam, Brazil, China, the Philippines, Sri
Lanka, and Indonesia.