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- Patient Comments: Q Fever - Experience
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- Q fever facts
- What is Q fever?
- Where does the name Q fever come from? What causes Q fever?
- How does Q fever spread?
- Who is at risk for getting Q fever?
- Are there different forms of Q fever?
- What are the signs and symptoms of Q fever?
- How do physicians diagnose Q fever?
- Is Q fever deadly?
- Is Q fever contagious?
- What is the danger of getting Q fever while pregnant?
- What complications may arise with Q fever?
- What is the prognosis for Q fever?
- If it is not Q fever, what else could it be?
- What should people do if they have been exposed to Q fever?
- Is there any treatment for Q fever?
- Is there a vaccine against Q fever?
- Is Q fever a bioterrorism threat?
- Where can people find more information about Q fever?
What are the signs and symptoms of Q fever?
About half of all people who are infected with the bacterium that causes Q fever have no symptoms at all. When the acute form of Q fever does cause symptoms, the symptoms can vary from person to person. Most often, people will suddenly develop flu-like symptoms, including fever (as high as 104 F-105 F), chills, muscle and joint aches, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cough, rash, and chest or abdominal pain. These symptoms may last up to a few weeks. The chronic form of Q fever, which occurs in only about 5% of those people infected, most often causes an infection and inflammation of the valves inside the heart called endocarditis. The symptoms of endocarditis can include fever, night sweats, shortness of breath, muscle and joint aches, edema (swelling of the legs), and rash.
How do physicians diagnose Q fever?
The diagnosis of Q fever is difficult because the symptoms are very similar to many other illnesses and vary a lot from person to person. The diagnosis should be suspected in people who have risk factors or who live in an area where Q fever is common and present with the acute onset of symptoms. In order to confirm the diagnosis, a blood sample can be sent to test for antibodies to the bacterium. Because antibody levels can remain high for years after a person has been infected, elevated antibody levels do not necessarily mean that the patient is acutely infected. Samples should be sent again a few weeks later to look for changing antibody levels that confirm the diagnosis of acute infection. Samples can also be sent for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) testing, which can detect infection earlier than the antibody tests, but this is less often available. People who have tested positive for acute infection should have follow-up testing done for up to two years to watch for the development of chronic Q fever infection. In chronic Q fever infection, diagnosis can also be made by testing tissue from infected heart valves if they are surgically removed and replaced. Culturing Coxiella burnetii from serum or tissue is possible but requires special lab facilities because of the highly infectious nature of the organism. Once a diagnosis of Q fever is made, it must be reported to the state health department.