Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Pycnodysostosis is perhaps best known as the diagnosis given retrospectively to the late 19th century French artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (portrayed by Jose Ferrer in the 1952 film "Moulin Rouge").
Pycnodysostosis is a genetic (inherited) disease of the bone. Its pattern of inheritance follows the classic rules of genetics (see below).
Pycnodysostosis consistently causes short stature. The height of adult males with the disease is less than 150 cm (59 inches, or 4 feet 11 inches). Adult females with pycnodysostosis are even shorter.
Pycnodysostosis causes the bones to be abnormally dense (osteosclerosis); the last bones of the fingers (the distal phalanges) to be unusually short; and delays the normal closure of the connections (sutures) of the skull bones in infancy, so that the "soft spot" (the fontanel) on top of the head remains widely open.
Pycnodysostosis causes brittle bones which easily break (fracture). The bones in the legs and feet tend to fracture. The jaw and collar bone (clavicles) are also particularly prone to fractures.
The precise frequency of pycnodysostosis has never been determined. Pycnodysostosis can be classified in the large group of genetic diseases that are individually uncommon, but collectively important because of the sum of their numbers, their heavy impact upon affected individuals, and the equally heavy burden they place upon their families.