Jay W. Marks, MD, is a board-certified internist and gastroenterologist. He graduated from Yale University School of Medicine and trained in internal medicine and gastroenterology at UCLA/Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
Dr. Lee was born in Shanghai, China, and received his college and medical training in the United States. He is fluent in English and three Chinese dialects. He graduated with chemistry departmental honors from Harvey Mudd College. He was appointed president of AOA society at UCLA School of Medicine. He underwent internal medicine residency and gastroenterology fellowship training at Cedars Sinai Medical Center.
Standard upper gastrointestinal endoscopes (120 cm flexible tubes with a
light and camera on their tips) are capable of reaching only a foot or so past
the stomach into the small intestine. If abnormalities are located within this
area, these endoscopes have working channels through which surgical instruments
can be passed so that diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as biopsy and
electrocautery can be done.
Many abnormalities of the small bowel, however, lie
further along the small intestine beyond the reach of the standard upper
gastrointestinal endoscopes. Sometimes a
colonoscope, similar to the upper
gastrointestinal endoscope but 180 cm in length, can be used to reach a little
further into the small intestine, but the additional reach of colonoscopes is
It is not the length of the endoscope that is the most important
problem in reaching further into the small intestine. The problem is that the
path of the endoscope through the stomach and duodenum is twisty and the
endoscopes curl in the stomach. In addition, the small intestine is not fixed in
place, and this makes advancement of the endoscopes even more difficult.
Modern endoscopic techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment
of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach, and
duodenum) and the colon. The last remaining frontier has bee"...