Psychotic Disorders

  • Medical Author:
    Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD

    Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD

    Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

Where can people find additional information about psychotic disorders or specialists who treat it?

Action Postpartum Psychosis
Tel: 0292 074 2038

American Psychological Association

American Psychiatric Association

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI)

Postpartum Support International

Schizophrenics Anonymous


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

Bartholomeusz, C.F., and K. Allott. "Neurocognitive and social cognitive approaches for improving functional outcome in early psychosis: Theoretical considerations and current state of evidence." Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, 2012.

Bebbington, P., E. Kuipers, P. Garety, J. Geddes, G. Orbach, and C. Morgan. "Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: I. Meta-analysis of family intervention and cognitive behaviour therapy." Psychological Medicine 2002; 763-782.

Brendel, R.W., and T.A. Stern. "Psychotic symptoms in the elderly." Primary Care Companion: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 7.5 (2005): 238-241.

Cannon, T.D., K. Cadenhead, B. Cornblatt, et al. "Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk." Archives of General Psychiatry 65 (2008): 28-37.

Cerejeira, J., and E.B. Mukaetova-Ladinska. "A clinical update on delirium: from early recognition to effective management." Nursing Research and Practice 2011.

Cobb, C. "Fact Sheet: Clozaril (Clozapine)." National Alliance on Mental Illness Minnesota. Dec. 2006. <>.

Cornblatt, B.A., R.E. Carrion, J. Addington, L. Seidman, E.F. Walker, et al. "Risk factors for psychosis: Impaired social and role functioning." Schizophrenia Bulletin 38.6 (2012): 1247-1257.

Das-Munshi, J., L. Becares, J.E. Boydell, M.E. Dewey, et al. "Ethnic density as a buffer for psychotic experiences: findings from a national survey (EMPIRIC)." British Journal of Psychiatry 201 Oct. 2012: 282-290.

Dvir, Y., and J.A. Frazier. "Autism and schizophrenia." Psychiatric Times 28.3 (2011).

Haddad, P.M., C. Brain, and J. Scott. "Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: challenges and management strategies." Patient Related Outcome Measures 5 June 23, 2014: 43-62. <>.

Haw, C., K. Hawton, L. Sutton, et al. "Schizophrenia and deliberate self harm: a systematic review of risk factors." Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviors 35 (2005): 50-62.

Hodgson, R., H.J. Wildgust, and C.J. Bushe. "Cancer and schizophrenia: Is there a paradox?" Journal of Psychopharmacology 24(4 supplement) November 2010: 51-60.

Honey, G.D., P.R. Corlett, A.R. Absalom, M. Lee, et al. "Individual differences in psychotic effects of ketamine are predicted by brain function measured under placebo." Journal of Neuroscience June 2008: 62-95-6303.

Jenkins, R., F. Njenga, M. Okonji, P. Kigamwa, et al. "Psychotic symptoms in Kenya – prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with common mental disorders." International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health 9.5 (2012): 1748-1756.

Keshavan, M.S., M. Sujata, A. Mehra, et al. "Psychosis proness and ADHD in young relatives of schizophrenia patients." Schizophrenia Research 2002: 85-92.

Levin, R., and G. Fireman. "Nightmare prevalence, nightmare distress and self-reported psychological disturbance." Sleep 25.2 (2002): 205-212.

Malone, D.T., M.N. Hill, and T. Rubino. "Adolescent cannabis use and psychosis: epidemiology and neurodevelopmental models." British Journal of Pharmacology 160.3 June 2010: 511-522.

McFarlane, W.R., L. Dixon, E. Lukens, and A. Lucksted. "Family psychoeducation and schizophrenia: a review of the literature." Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 2003.

Nau, M.L., D.E. McNiel, and R.L. Binder. "Postpartum psychosis and the courts." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 40.3 Sept. 2012: 318-325.

Northwest Territories Health and Social Services. Northwest Territories Hospitalization Report. 2013.

Nuevo, R., et al. "The continuum of psychotic symptoms in the general population: a cross-national study." Schizophrenia Bulletin 38 (2012): 475-485.

Ochoa, S., J. Usall, J. Cobo, X. Labad, and J. Kulkarni. "Gender differences in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis: A comprehensive literature review." Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, 2012.

Petit, J.R., and P. Brown. "Reducing readmissions: the role of long acting injectable psychotropic medications, gaining consumer acceptance and peer counselors." Institute for Behavioral Healthcare Improvement Reducing Readmissions Project. Dec. 2012.

Semple, D.M., A.M. McIntosh, and S.M. Lawrie. "Cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis: a systemic review." Journal of Psychopharmacology 19.2 (2005): 187-194.

Shrivastava, A., P.D. McGorry, M. Tsuang, S.W. Woods, et al. "Attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome as a risk syndrome of psychosis, diagnosis in DSM-V: The debate." Indian Journal of Psychiatry 53.1 Jan.-Mar. 2011: 57-65.

Shy, A. "Psychosis in Children and Adolescents." Psychiatric Research Institute. Mar. 31, 2014. <>.

Sikich, L., J.A. Frazier, j. McClellan, et al. "Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) Study." American Journal of Psychiatry 165.11 Nov. 2008: 1420-1431.

Singh, SP. "Outcome measures in early psychosis: Relevance of duration of untreated psychosis." British Journal of Psychiatry, 2007.

Stafford, M.R., et al. "Early interventions to prevent psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis." British Medical Journal Jan. 2013: 346.

Suvisaari, J.M., V. Taxell-Lassas, M. Pankakoski, et al. "Obstetric complications as risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum psychoses in offspring of mothers with psychotic disorder." Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2012.

Terp, I.M., G. Engholm, H. Møller, and P.B. Mortensen. "A follow-up study of postpartum psychoses: prognosis and risk factors for readmission." Acta Psychiatry of Scandinavia 100 (1999): 40-46.

Valencia, M., F. Juarez, and H. Ortega. "Integrated treatment to achieve functional recovery for first-episode psychosis." Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, 2012.

Varese, F., F. Smeets, M. Drukker, R. Lieverse, et al. "Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective – and cross-sectional cohort studies." Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2012.

Wiles, N.J., S. Zammit, P. Bebbington, N. Singleton, et al. "Self-reported psychotic symptoms in the general population: results from the longitudinal study of the British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey." British Journal of Psychiatry 188 (2006): 519-526.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/14/2017

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