- Prostate Cancer Slideshow Pictures
- Medical Illustrations of the Prostate Image Collection
- Essential Screening Tests Every Man Needs Slideshow
- Patient Comments: PSA Test - Patient Experience
- Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test facts
- What is prostate specific antigen (PSA)?
- How is PSA test measured?
- What causes PSA elevation in the blood?
- What are normal results for the PSA test?
- What are age-specific reference ranges for serum PSA?
- How is PSA used for early detection of prostate cancer?
- What is the free PSA test?
- What is free/total PSA ratio?
- What is PSA velocity and PSA doubling time?
- How is PSA testing used for pretreatment staging of prostate cancer?
- How is PSA testing used in the management of prostate cancer after treatment?
- What are the limitations of the PSA test?
- What is digital rectal examination (DRE)?
- What is the PSA screening controversy?
- How should the PSA test be used for the early detection of prostate cancer?
- What is PCA3?
- What is the 4K biomarker?
Quick GuideMen's Health: Essential Screening Tests Every Man Needs
What are the limitations of the PSA test?
The level of PSA is a continuous parameter; the higher the value, the higher the probability of having prostate cancer. On the other hand, men may have prostate cancer despite low levels of PSA. In a U.S. prevention study, 6.6% of the men whose PSA level was less than 0.5 ng/mL had prostate cancer. This is why there is no universally accepted cutoff at which we can be sure that there is no prostate cancer. Coupled with the lack of an accurate molecular marker to detect prostate cancer, the other controversy with PSA screening is the fact that not all men with prostate cancer will die from the disease (See: What is the PSA screening controversy?).
For these reasons outlined above, it is important to not solely rely on blood PSA testing. The most useful additional test is a physical prostate examination by a doctor known as the digital rectal exam (DRE). Evidence from research studies suggests that the combination of both PSA and DRE improves the overall rate of prostate cancer detection. For that reason, men who would like to be screened for prostate cancer should have both a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test and a digital rectal examination (DRE).
What is digital rectal examination (DRE)?
Most prostate cancers are located in the peripheral zone of the prostate and may be detected by DRE. During this examination a doctor inserts a finger into the rectum to feel the prostate for lumps, size, shape, tenderness, and hardness. A suspect DRE is an absolute indication for prostate biopsy. In about 18% of patients with abnormal DRE, prostate cancer will be detected regardless of the PSA level.