- Prostate Cancer Slideshow Pictures
- Medical Illustrations of the Prostate Image Collection
- Men's Screening Tests Slideshow
- Patient Comments: PSA Test - Patient Experience
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test facts
- What is a PSA blood test?
- How is PSA test measured?
- What causes PSA elevation in the blood?
- What can lower the PSA test result?
- What is the accuracy of the PSA test?
- What are normal results for the PSA test?
- What are age-specific reference ranges for serum PSA?
- How is PSA used for early detection of prostate cancer?
- What is the cost of the PSA test?
- What is the free PSA test?
- What is free/total PSA ratio?
- What is PSA velocity and PSA doubling time?
- How is PSA testing used for pretreatment staging of prostate cancer?
- How is PSA testing used in the management of prostate cancer after treatment?
- What are the limitations of the PSA test?
- What is digital rectal examination (DRE)?
- What is the PSA screening controversy?
- How should the PSA test be used for the early detection of prostate cancer?
- What is PCA3?
- What is the 4K biomarker?
Quick GuideScreening Tests Every Man Should Have
What are normal results for the PSA test?
The "normal" PSA serum concentration remains a debate, however, for most laboratory readings, it should be less than 4.0 ng/mL. The prostate gland generally increases in size and produces more PSA with increasing age, so it is normal to have lower levels in young men and higher levels in older men. Due to these normal changes in PSA with age, the concept of age-adjusted PSA normals have been described and recommended. What is considered to be a normal PSA level also depends on ethnicity and family history of prostate cancer. Other than the single reading, the changes in PSA numbers on an annual basis (also referred to as PSA-velocity) also play a role in decision making about the PSA marker. The normal increase of less than 0.75 ng/mL is used to help determine whether levels may be suggestive of disease and to counsel men on management. As such, a man 50 to 59 years of age with an increase in PSA levels from 0.5 ng/mL to 2.5 ng/mL may have prostate cancer despite the normal value at that time. Lastly, as the size of the prostate gland may affect the PSA level, PSA density (PSA level divided by prostate volume) can also be a helpful number. A PSA density of 0.18 appears to be an optimal number.
What are age-specific reference ranges for serum PSA?
The use of age-specific PSA ranges for the detection of prostate cancer is helpful to avoid unnecessary investigations in older men with larger prostate glands. Median PSA value for men aged 40 to 49 years is 0.7 ng/mL and for men 50 to 59 years is 0.9 ng/mL. Not all studies have agreed that this is better than simply using a level of 4.0 ng/mL as the highest normal value. Nevertheless, due to the age-related growth of the prostate, the concept of adjusting the cutoff values based on age has helped reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in older men to improve early prostate cancer detection. Below are the suggested age-adjusted values based on age and race.
PSA levels chart
|Age Range (Years)||Asian Americans||African Americans||Caucasians|
|40 to 49||0 to 2.0 ng/mL||0 to 2.0 ng/mL||0 to 2.5 ng/mL|
|50 to 59||0 to 3.0 ng/mL||0 to 4.0 ng/mL||0 to 3.5 ng/mL|
|60 to 69||0 to 4.0 ng/mL||0 to 4.5 ng/mL||0 to 4.5 ng/mL|
|70 to 79||0 to 5.0 ng/mL||0 to 5.5 ng/mL||0 to 6.5 ng/mL|